Wallingford Castle
The remains of Wallingford Castle, once an important royal castle and defensive stronghold, are situated in Wallingford in the English county of Oxfordshire (historically in Berkshire until 1974 reorganization), adjacent to the River Thames.

Wallingford Castle is generally thought to have been built by Robert D'Oyly between 1067 and 1071 on orders from William the Conqueror, at the same time as Oxford Castle, to the Norman motte and bailey design, though it has been suggested that Miles Crispin may have founded it. It was strengthened by Brien FitzCount before the wars between King Stephen and Empress Matilda, and Stephen's forces attacked it many times, before he was in turn attacked by the soon-to-be King Henry II. FitzCount established a prison within the castle, called Cloere Brien. It was described as "most securely fortified by impregnable walls". Ealdred of Abingdon, Edward I, Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, Maurice de Berkeley, Waleran de Beaumont, Henry of Almain, Walter Langton, Robert de Ferrers, Owen Tudor, Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, Margaret of Anjou, Charles of Orléans, Sir Richard Browne, John Clotworthy and Judge David Jenkins were all imprisoned here. King John added further to the castle, and Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall spent substantial sums on it: during the 13th century it gained two further walls and ditches. William IX, Count of Poitiers died at the castle in 1156, as did Joan of Kent who died at the castle in 1387. Catherine of Valois, widow of Henry V, was given the castle and here her relationship with Owen Tudor developed. The castle contained St Nicholas's College, established by Miles Crispin. The college trained choirboys, including the poet Thomas Tusser. The castle fell into decline in the 16th century, but in the 17th century, it was strengthened again and held by a royalist garrison during the civil war between Parliament and Charles I. It was the last English stronghold to surrender during the First English Civil War, following the surrender of Thomas Blagge (1646) after a siege conducted by Thomas Fairfax. Parliament order it to be demolished in 1652. The site was a meeting-place for nonconformists later in that century. A large gothic house was built on the site in 1837 but demolished in 1972. The castle grounds (including the remains of St Nicholas College, two sections of castle wall and the motte hill) are now open to the public, and more information can be found at Wallingford Museum. The lords of Wallingford Castle have included the following:
  • Miles Crispin;
  • Maud Crispin;
  • Brien FitzCount;
  • Nigel D'Oyly;
  • Walter de Coutances;
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine;
  • Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent;
  • Richard Fitz Roy;
  • Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester;
  • Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall;
  • Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester;
  • Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall;
  • Piers Gaveston;
  • Hugh the younger Despenser;
  • Isabella of France;
  • Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March;
  • John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall;
  • Sir John Stonor;
  • Edward, the Black Prince;
  • Bartholomew de Burghersh, 2nd Baron Burghersh
  • Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford;
  • John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset;
  • William le Scrope, 1st Earl of Wiltshire;
  • Henry IV of England;
  • Thomas Chaucer;
  • William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk;
  • Alice de la Pole;
  • John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk;
  • Richard Grey;
  • Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell;
  • Arthur, Prince of Wales;
  • Sir Henry Norreys;
  • Francis Knollys (the elder);
  • William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury;
  • Thomas Blagge;
  • Edmund Dunch, Baron Burnell of East Wittenham;
  • Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire.

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