University College London

University College London ( UCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the largest constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1826, UCL was the first university institution to be founded in London and the first in England to be established on an entirely secular basis, to admit students regardless of their religion and to admit women on equal terms with men. UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London in 1836. UCL is organised into eight constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments, institutes and research centres. UCL's main campus is located in the Bloomsbury area of Central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals located elsewhere in Central London. The UCL School of Energy and Resources is based in Adelaide, Australia. UCL is a major centre for biomedical research; it is part of three of the 12 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England and is a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe. For the period 1999 to 2009 it was the 13th most-cited university in the world (and the most-cited in Europe). UCL had a total income of £714 million in 2008/09, of which £249 million was from research grants and contracts. UCL has over 4,000 academic and research staff and 648 professors, the highest number of any British university. There are currently 36 Fellows of the Royal Society, 26 Fellows of the British Academy, 10 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 78 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic and research staff. There are 21 Nobel Prize winners and three Fields Medalists amongst UCL’s alumni and current and former staff, the most recent being Sir Charles K. Kao, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009. UCL is ranked 21st in the world (and 3rd in Europe) in the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities , 4th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) in the 2010 QS World University Rankings and 22nd in the world (and 5th in Europe) in the 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings . UCL is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the 'G5', the League of European Research Universities, the Russell Group, UNICA and Universities UK. It forms part of the 'Golden Triangle' of British universities.

History

19th century
UCL was founded in 1826 under the name " London University" as a secular alternative to the religious universities of Oxford and Cambridge. . Although the philosopher Jeremy Bentham is commonly seen as the father of UCL, he personally took no part in its creation. Bentham's radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders however, particularly the Scotsmen James Mill (1773”“1836) and Henry Brougham (1778”“1868). In 1827 the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, establishing the first Department of Economics in England. In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a degree subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830 London University founded the London University School, which was to later become University College School. In 1833 the university appointed Captain Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834 University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university medical school. In 1836, London University became formally known as " University College, London" (the comma between the words College and London was commonly used until recently), when, under a Royal Charter, it worked with the recently established King's College, London, to create the federal University of London. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded in 1871 as the result of a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878 UCL became the first British university to admit women on equal terms to men. In 1898 William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton, neon and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL.

20th century
Sir Gregory Foster became UCL’s first Provost in 1906, a post that he held for the next 23 years. In the same year the Cruciform Building was opened as the new home for University College Hospital. In 1907 the University of London was formally reconstituted with a new Royal charter, and a number of new institutions joined the federation. As part of this reorganisation each of the constituent institutions, including UCL, lost their legal independece, and henceforth all offered degrees awarded by the University of London. UCL sustained considerable bomb damage during the Second World War, including to the Great Hall and the Carey Foster Physics Laboratory. The first UCL student magazine, Pi Magazine, was published for the first time on 21 February 1946. The Institute of Jewish Studies relocated to UCL in 1959. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory was established in 1966. In 1973 UCL became the first international link to the ARPANET, the precursor of the internet, sending the world's first e-mail in the same year. In 1977 a new charter restored UCL's legal independence, although not ”“ at that time ”“ the power to award its own degrees. In 1986 UCL merged with the Institute of Archaeology. In 1988 UCL merged with the Institute of Laryngology & Otology, the Institute of Orthopaedics, the Institute of Urology & Nephrology and Middlesex Hospital Medical School. In 1994 the University College London Hospitals NHS Trust was established. UCL merged with the College of Speech Sciences and the Institute of Ophthalmology in 1995, the School of Podiatry in 1996 and the Institute of Neurology in 1997. In 1998 UCL merged with the Royal Free Hospital Medical School to create the Royal Free and University College Medical School (renamed the UCL Medical School in October 2008). In 1999 UCL merged with the School of Slavonic and East European Studies and the Eastman Dental Institute.

21st century
The UCL Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, the first university department in the world devoted specifically to reducing crime, was founded in 2001. The London Centre for Nanotechnology was established in 2003 as a joint venture between UCL and Imperial College London. In 2005 UCL was again granted its own taught and research degree awarding powers and all new UCL students registered from 2007/08 qualified with UCL degrees rather than University of London degrees. The majority of continuing students who were enrolled on taught-degree programmes before the academic year 2007/08 were given the choice of whether to receive a UCL degree or a University of London degree. Also in 2005 a major new 76,000 m² building was opened for University College Hospital on Euston Road, and the UCL Ear Institute was opened on Gray's Inn Road adjacent to the Royal National Throat Nose and Ear Hospital. UCL merged with the Institute of Child Health in 2006, which became the largest division of the newly-formed Faculty of Biomedical Sciences. In 2007 the UCL Cancer Institute was opened in the newly-constructed Paul O'Gorman Building. In August 2008 UCL formed UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe, with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust and University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. In 2008 UCL became the first UK university to sign agreements for a campus in Australia, establishing the UCL School of Energy & Resources, Australia in Adelaide. In 2009, UCL announced that it would join some of the other elite institutions of Higher Education in the United Kingdom, such as Cambridge and The LSE by implementing the requirement of an A* at Advanced Level for undergraduates to be admitted to some of its most popular courses. In 2009, an alliance was formed between UCL, Yale and both universities’ affiliated hospitals to conduct research focused on the direct improvement of patient care"a growing field known as translational medicine. Yale's President Richard Levin noted that Yale has hundreds of other partnerships across the world, but "no existing collaboration matches the scale of the new partnership with UCL". As part of the protests against the UK Government's plans to increase student fees, around 200 students occupied the Jeremy Bentham Room and part of the Slade School of Fine Art for over two weeks during November and December 2010. The university successfully obtained a court order to evict the students but stated that it did not intend to enforce the order if possible.

Campus
UCL is mainly based in the Bloomsbury area of Central London. The main campus is located around Gower Street and includes the biology, chemistry, economics, engineering, geography, history, languages, mathematics, philosophy, politics and physics departments, the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School, the London Centre for Nanotechnology, the Slade School of Fine Art, the UCL Union, the main UCL Library, the UCL Science Library, the Bloomsbury Theatre and the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. Close by in Bloomsbury are the UCL Cancer Institute, the UCL Ear Institute, the UCL Eastman Dental Institute, the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett), the UCL Faculty of Laws, the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the UCL Institute of Child Health, the UCL Institute of Neurology, the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies and University College Hospital. Elsewhere in Central London are the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (based in Clerkenwell), the Windeyer Institute (based in Fitzrovia), the UCL Institute of Orthopedics and Musculoskeletal Science (based in Stanmore), The Royal Free Hospital and the Whittington Hospital campuses of the UCL Medical School, and a number of other teaching hospitals. The Department of Space and Climate Physics (Mullard Space Science Laboratory) is based in Holmbury St Mary, Surrey and the UCL School of Energy and Resources is based in Adelaide, Australia. Since September 2010 UCL has been running a University Preparatory Certificate course in maths and physics at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. A number of important institutions are based near to the main Bloomsbury campus, including the British Library, the British Medical Association, the British Museum, Cancer Research UK, the Institute for Fiscal Studies, the Medical Research Council, RADA, the Royal Academy of Art, the Royal Institution and the Wellcome Trust. Many University of London schools and institutes are also close by, including Birkbeck, University of London, the Institute of Education, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, the Royal Veterinary College, the School of Advanced Study, the School of Oriental and African Studies, The School of Pharmacy and the Senate House Library. The nearest London Underground station is Euston Square, with Goodge Street, Russell Square and Warren Street all nearby. The mainline railway stations at Euston, King's Cross and St Pancras are all within walking distance.

Notable buildings
Notable UCL buildings include:
  • The UCL Main Building, including the Octagon, Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building designed by William Wilkins
  • Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square (home to the UCL Institute of Neurology and the Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit)
  • 26 Bedford Way (home to the UCL Language Centre and parts of the Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, and Geography Department)
  • Bentham House, Endsleigh Gardens (home to the UCL Faculty of Laws)
  • Christopher Ingold Building, 20 Gordon Street (home to the Department of Chemistry)
  • The Cruciform Building, Gower Street (home to the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School and the Wolfson Institute of Biomedical Sciences, previously home to University College Hospital)
  • 17-19 Gordon Street (home to the London Centre for Nanotechnology)
  • 25 Gordon Street (home to the UCL Union)
  • Paul O'Gorman Building, 72 Huntley Street (home to the UCL Cancer Institute)
  • Roberts Building, 1-19 Torrington Place (home to the UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences)
  • Rockefeller Building, 21 University Street (home to parts of the UCL Medical School)
  • 16 Taviton Street (home to the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies)
  • University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road
  • The Bloomsbury Theatre, 15 Gordon Street


Organisation and administration
Although UCL voluntarily remains a constituent college of the University of London, it is in most ways comparable with free-standing, self-governing and independently funded universities, and it awards its own degrees. The current Provost and President of UCL is Professor Malcolm Grant.

Faculties and departments
UCL’s research and teaching is organised within a network of faculties and academic departments. Faculties and academic departments are formally established by the UCL Council, the governing body of UCL, on the advice of the Academic Board, which is UCL’s senior academic authority. UCL currently has the following eight constituent faculties:
  • UCL Faculty of Arts and Humanities
  • UCL Faculty of Biomedical Sciences
  • UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett)
  • UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences
  • UCL Faculty of Laws
  • UCL Faculty of Life Sciences
  • UCL Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • UCL Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences
The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies exists as an academic unit outside of the faculty structure. In order to facilitate greater interdisciplinary interaction in research and teaching UCL has also established three strategic faculty groupings:
  • UCL School of Life and Medical Sciences (comprising the UCL Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and the UCL Faculty of Life Sciences and incorporating the UCL Medical School)
  • UCL School of the Built Environment, Engineering and Mathematical and Physical Sciences (comprising the UCL Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences and UCL Faculty of Mathematical & Physical Sciences)
  • UCL Faculty of Arts & Humanities, UCL Faculty of Laws, UCL Faculty of Social & Historical Sciences and the UCL School of Slavonic & East European Studies.


Finances
In 2008/09 UCL had a net income of £713.7 million (2007/08 - £635.4 million) and total expenditure of £701.8 million (2007/08 - £634.7 million). Key sources of income included £200.6 million from research grants and contracts, £209.8 million from Funding Council grants, and £8.1 million from endowment and investment income. At year-end UCL had total endowments of £57.1 million, reserves of £182.6 million and total net assets of £598 million.

Logo, arms and colours
Coat of arms Whereas most universities primarily use their logo on mundane documents but their coat of arms on official documents such as degree certificates, UCL exclusively uses its logo. UCL does have a coat of arms however, which depicts a raised bent arm dressed in armour holding a green upturned open wreath. The blazon of these arms is: Purpure, on a wreath of the colours Argent and Blue Celeste, an arm in armour embowed Argent holding an upturned wreath of laurel Vert, beneath which two branches of laurel Or crossed at the nombril and bound with a bowed cord Or, beneath the nombril a motto of Blue Celeste upon which Cuncti adsint meritaeque expectent praemia palmae. UCL's traditional sporting and academic colours of purple and light blue are derived from the arms.

Academics
UCL has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including around 150 research links and 130 student-exchange partnerships with European universities. Students from more than 150 countries study at UCL, with non-British students making up almost a third of the student body.

Faculty and staff
As at October 2009, UCL had 4,078 academic and research staff across its eight faculties:

UCL has the highest number of professors of any university in the UK, with 648 established and personal chairs. There are currently 36 Fellows of the Royal Society, 26 Fellows of the British Academy, 10 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 78 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences amongst UCL academic and research staff.

Research
16 Taviton Street (home to the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies) UCL has made cross-disciplinary research a priority and orientates its research around four "Grand Challenges". According to Professor David Price, Pro-Provost for Research: "We believe we have a moral obligation to make a difference to global problems, and to combine the knowledge that our research generates to develop wisdom that can be applied in each of the four Grand Challenges: Global Health, Sustainable Cities, Intercultural Interaction and Human Wellbeing". According to a ranking of universities produced by SCImago Research Group, UCL is ranked 12th in the world (and 1st in Europe) in terms of total research output. According to data released in July 2008 by ISI Web of Knowledge, UCL is the 12th most-cited university in the world (and most-cited in Europe). The analysis covered citations from 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008, during which 46,166 UCL research papers attracted 803,566 citations. The number of citations generated by academic publications is an important indication of institutional importance and influence. The report covers citations in 21 subject areas and the results revealed some of UCL's key strengths:
  • in Clinical Medicine ”“ 1st outside North America
  • in Neuroscience & Behaviour ”“ 1st outside North America and 2nd in the world
  • in Psychiatry/ Psychology ”“ 2nd outside North America
  • in Immunology ”“ 2nd in Europe
  • in Pharmacology & Toxicology ”“ 1st outside North America and 4th in the world
  • in Social Sciences, General ”“ 1st outside North America
According to a separate analysis by ISI Web of Knowledge, for the period January 2000 to August 2010 UCL was ranked 16th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for citations per paper in engineering. In the Times Higher Education ranking of research council awards 2008-9 UCL is shown to have won the most research awards with 174 awards amounting to £81,365,000. In second place Cambridge won 162 awards amounting to £74,263,000. In third place Oxford won 153 awards amounting to £54,750,000. This is thought to be the first time that a university other than Cambridge or Oxford has headed the table. There are currently approximately 3,000 PhD students working at UCL.

Medicine
Main article: UCL Medical School Moorfields Eye Hospital UCL has offered courses in medicine since 1834 but the current UCL Medical School developed from mergers with the medical schools of the Middlesex Hospital (founded in 1746) and The Royal Free Hospital (founded as the London School of Medicine for Women in 1874). Clinical medicine is primarily taught at The Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, with other associated teaching hospitals including the Eastman Dental Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital. UCL is a major centre for biomedical research. It is a member of three of the 12 biomedical research centres established by the NHS in England - the UCLH/UCL Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre, the Moorfields Eye Hospital/UCL Institute of Ophthalmology Biomedical Research Centre and the Great Ormond Street Hospital/UCL Institute of Child Health Biomedical Research Centre. It is also a founding member of UCL Partners, the largest academic health science centre in Europe with a turnover of approximately £2 billion. UCL has joined with the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK and the Wellcome Trust to establish the UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation, a new £600 million medical research centre to be based next to St Pancras railway station and planned to open in 2015. It will be one of the world’s largest medical research centres, housing 1,250 scientists.

Admissions
Admission to UCL is highly selective; many of UCL's courses require three A grades at A Level, or a grade equivalent of 6,6,6 on higher level subjects on the International Baccalaureate Program. Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, UCL, along with institutions such as Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge was one of the first universities in the UK to make use of the A* grade at A-Level (introduced in 2010) for admissions, particularly for very oversubscribed courses such as Economics, Mathematics, History, Psychology, and European Social and Political Studies.

Rankings
In the 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities , UCL is ranked 21st overall in the world (and 3rd in Europe), 11th in the world (and 2nd in Europe) for Clinical Medicine & Pharmacy, and 20th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life & Agricultural Sciences. In the 2010 QS World University Rankings , UCL is ranked 4th overall in the world (and 2nd in Europe). In the subject tables it is ranked 12th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities, 15th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences and Medicine, and 25th in the world (and 5th in Europe) for Social Sciences. In the 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings , UCL is ranked 22nd overall in the world (and 5th in Europe), 11th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Life Sciences, 9th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Clinical, Pre-Clinical and Health, 14th in the world (and 4th in Europe) for Social Sciences, and 10th in the world (and 3rd in Europe) for Arts and Humanities. In the 2011 Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, UCL is ranked 19th overall in the world (and 4th in Europe). UCL is consistently one of the top multi-faculty universities in UK university rankings. UCL is ranked first in the UK for its staff/student ratio in The Times Good University Guide, The Sunday Times University Guide and The Guardian University Guide. In The Guardian University Guide subject tables, UCL is ranked first for Art and Design and Psychology and second for Archaeology, English and Philosophy. Human Resources & Labor Review , a human competitiveness index & analysis published in Chasecareer Network, ranked UCL 20th internationally in 2011 as one of the 300 Best World Universities. At a recent ranking undertaken by the Guardian in 2009, UCL is placed 3rd in the UK in international reputation (behind Oxford and Cambridge).

Affiliations Association of Commonwealth Universities European University Association 'G5' League of European Research Universities Russell Group University of London Universities UK Website www.ucl.ac.uk Faculty Number of staff UCL Faculty of Arts and Humanities 180 UCL Faculty of Biomedical Sciences 1,971 UCL Faculty of the Built Environment (The Bartlett) 136 UCL Faculty of Engineering Sciences 391 UCL Faculty of Laws 62 UCL Faculty of Life Sciences 591 UCL Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences 445 UCL Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences 292 World rankings 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Academic Ranking of World Universities 21 st 21 st 22 nd 25 th 26 th 26 th HEEACT ”“ Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities 17 th 20 th 20 th 24 th QS World University Rankings 4 th 4 th 7 th 9 th 25 th 28 th Times Higher Education World University Rankings 22 nd UK rankings 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 The Complete University Guide 9 th 8 th 8 th 6 th The Daily Telegraph 6 th Guardian University Guide 5 th 6 th 7 th 5 th - 4 th 7 th Sunday Times University Guide 4 th 4 th 4 th 6 th 5 th 5 th

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