Toronto Pearson International Airport

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Toronto Pearson International Airport
Toronto Pearson International Airport, also known as Lester B. Pearson International Airport or simply Toronto Pearson ( IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ), is a major international airport serving Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is situated 27 km (17 mi) northwest of Downtown Toronto in the city of Mississauga, Ontario. It is the primary airport for a densely populated metropolitan region in southern Ontario, including the Greater Toronto Area, situated within the Golden Horseshoe. Pearson is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2009, it handled 30.4 million passengers, and 407,724 aircraft movements. It is currently the 20th busiest airport by aircraft movements and 18th busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world. In 2006, the airport was selected as the best global airport by the UK-based Institute of Transport Management. Lester B. Pearson International Airport is the primary hub for Air Canada, making it a major Star Alliance hub airport. It also serves as a hub for Air Canada Jazz, Air Georgian, Air Transat, Fedex Express, Sunwing Airlines and WestJet. The airport is operated by Greater Toronto Airports Authority as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports with facilities for United States border preclearance. An extensive network of daily non-stop domestic flights is operated from Toronto Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all Provinces of Canada. The domestic route between Toronto and Montréal is currently the 15th busiest air route in the world, with over 480 flights operated on the route weekly. Toronto Pearson also has a very strong international presence, with 74 airlines offering non-stop or direct service to over 100 international destinations throughout the United States, Mexico, Asia, Europe, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, the Middle East and Oceania.


Malton Airport (1937-1960)
The airport was created from nine farmland properties that were purchased by the Toronto Harbour Commission in 1937. It first opened in 1939 as Malton Airport, named for its location near Malton, bounded by Derry Road to the north, Airport Road (6th Line) to the east, Elmbank Side Road to the south and Torbram Road (5th Line) to the west. The first terminal was built in 1938 and consisted of a standard frame terminal building from a converted farm house. The original airport covered 420 acres (1.7 km 2) with full lighting, radio, weather reporting equipment, two hard surface runways and one grass landing strip. Malton Airport was sold to the City of Toronto in 1940. From June 1940 to July 1942, during the Second World War, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) operated No. 1 Elementary Service Flying School (EFTS). An air traffic control centre was added in 1942. A second terminal, similar to the existing structure at the Toronto Island Airport, was built along Airport Road in 1949 to replace the first terminal (converted farm house). It was able to handle 400,000 passengers a year, and had an observation deck on the roof. Further expansion of the airport saw the expropriation of land to the south of Elmbank Side Road and westwards past Torbram to Dixie Road. The airport's growth eventually lead to the disappearance of much of the town, Elmbank. The runways for Malton consisted of 14/32, a 11,050 ft (3,368 m) runway used for test flights for the CF-105 Arrow (Avro Arrow) fighter from the Avro Canada plant and now exists only as a taxiway to 05/23; 14/32, a 11,475 ft (3,498 m) north-south runway (replaced by 15L/33R); and 10/28, a 7,425 ft (2,263 m) northwest-southeast runway which now also exists as only a taxiway. Transport Canada obtained control of Malton Airport in 1958, and the airport was renamed Toronto International Airport in 1960.

Toronto International Airport (1960-1984)
The second terminal was demolished in the late 1960s to make way for the Terminal 1 (T1) building. The original T1 (also called Aeroquay One) had a square central structure topped by a parking garage with about eight levels and ringed by a two-storey passenger concourse leading to the gates. It was designed by John B. Parkin and construction took place between 1957 and 1964. In 1972, the Canadian government expropriated land east of Toronto for a second major airport, Pickering Airport, to relieve congestion at Toronto International. The project was postponed in 1975, partly due to opposition by community activists and environmentalists. However, the government retains ownership of the expropriated land. Considered state-of-the-art in the 1960s, Terminal 1 became overloaded by the early 1970s, resulting in the building of another terminal. Terminal 2, originally intended as a freight terminal, opened on June 15, 1972. However, the failed development of the Pickering Airport forced the airport to modify Terminal 2's plan into a two floor, 26- gate passenger terminal. Initially, it was served only by charter airlines, but became the hub for Air Canada passenger flights on April 29, 1973. A passenger tunnel with moving sidewalks at the northwest corner of Terminal 2 connected it with Terminal 1. The site of Terminal 2 was to have been the location for the planned Aeroquays Two and Three, duplicates of the design of the original Terminal 1 (Aeroquay One), but their inefficiency in handling wide-body passenger aircraft by the late 1960s forced the airport to abandon the circular terminal concept. Terminal 2 was designed for three airlines: American Airlines (American-AA), British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), and Canadian Pacific Airlines (CP Air). In the later development stages, it became apparent that it would not be viable in this form, the major complaint being the lack of indoor parking and the lack of windows. As AA, British Airways (BA- the renamed BOAC) and CP opted out of T2, Air Canada, as the government airline, was forced to move its operations there against its will. Initially, it was operated as three separate areas, befitting the three airlines for which it was designed: furthest west, (designed for CP) the Domestic zone; at the centre (designed for BA), International; furthest east, (for AA) Transborder. In the late 1970s, T2 was redesigned again; this iteration lasting until the acquisition of Canadian Airlines in 2000. The western zone remained Domestic, but was now colour coded red. In the middle, a separate Rapidair area was created for flights to Ottawa Macdonald-Cartier International Airport and Montreal-Dorval International Airport; it was red as well. East of that was the Transborder area, coloured white. A new section was added on the east end for International flights and was coded blue. An airside corridor along the southern edge of T2 was added, giving access to and from Canada Customs; this made it possible for aircraft arriving in one zone to depart with passengers from another zone without regating the aircraft.

Toronto Pearson International Airport (1984-present)
The airport was renamed to Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the 14th Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. Operationally, the airport is often referred to as Toronto Pearson. Terminal 3 opened in 1991, to offset traffic from Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. Before its opening, Terminal 3 was the designation for the CP Air hangar at the airport during 1971 to handle the increased volume at Terminal 1. There is one infield terminal located near the cargo tenants; however, it is not currently used for by any airline or cargo airline. As part of the National Airports Policy, management responsibilities of the Toronto Pearson were transferred from Transport Canada to the Greater Toronto Airports Authority in 1996. The C$4.4 billion Airport Development Program commenced with focus on terminal development, airside development, infield development, utilities and airport support facilities over a 10-year period. Work began to replace Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 with a new Terminal 1, which along with a Terminal 3 would become the two passenger terminal facilities at Toronto Pearson. To ensure the ability of Toronto Pearson to accommodate its growing aircraft volume, substantial redevelopment of the airside and infield systems took place. Cargo facilities were added in the centre of the airport between the parallel north-south runways, to increase capabilities and to offset the loss of the cargo facilities that were removed for the new terminal. Two new runways were built to increase the number of aircraft that Toronto Pearson can process. A north-south runway, 15R/33L, was added and completed in 1997. Another east-west runway, 06R/24L, was completed in 2002. After the September 11 attacks, Toronto Pearson was part of Operation Yellow Ribbon, as it received 19 of the diverted flights that were coming into the United States, even though Transport Canada and NAV CANADA instructed pilots to avoid the airport as a security measure. The new Terminal 1 opened its piers D and E on April 6, 2004. Previously, Terminal 2 had a facility for United States border preclearance and handled both domestic and international transborder traffic. Domestic traffic was moved to the new Terminal 1 when it became operational, leaving Terminal 2 to handle international traffic to the United States for Air Canada and their Star Alliance partner United Airlines. Terminal 2 saw its last day in operation as a passenger terminal on January 29, 2007 and airlines moved to the newly completed Pier F, or Hammerhead Pier at Terminal 1 the following day. Demolition of Terminal 2 began in April 2007 and continued until November 2008. Terminal 1 was designed in a way that will allow for future expansion. Future projections see Toronto Pearson handling 55 million passengers annually by 2020, and Terminal 3 will also be expanded as needed to service the passengers. The first landing of an A380 in Toronto was on June 1, 2009, operated by Emirates. Since then, the A380 operates on Monday, Wednesday and Friday from/to Dubai. Traffic flow is steady at Pearson throughout the year, but during the day, peak passenger, cargo and aircraft movements are between 3:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. daily. Transpacific flights from East Asia peak late in the night, while Transatlantic flights from Europe peak during late afternoon.

Infrastructure and services

LINK Train

LINK Train

Terminal 1

Terminal 3

In July 2006, the automated LINK Train people mover was opened, with two 6-car trains running between Terminals 1 and 3 and the 6A Station, where a reduced rate and airport staff parking lot exists between Airport Road and Viscount Road. A new parking garage that was constructed at 6B parking lot, opposite the 6A Station (linked via a bridge that crosses Viscount Road), opened on December 2009 and has a maximum capacity of 8,500 vehicles. This will be a mixed-use building (long term parking, employee parking and rental car operations).

  • Main control tower - 200 ft (61 m) was completed in 2000 and replaced the old tower (now demolished).
  • Deicing Centres 1997-1999
  • Central Heating Plant 2001
  • Central Utilities Plant 2001
  • GTAA Cogeneration Complex 2005
    • Terminal 3 Switching Station
    • Bramalea Transformer station
  • Carlingview Stormwater Control Facility 2000
  • Etobicoke Stormwater Management Facility 2000
  • Moore Creek Stormwater Control Facility 2000
  • GTAA Administration Building - moved in 1997; former home of Canadian Airlines

North Business Aviation Area
Next to the cargo terminals off Derry Road is refer to as the North Business Aviation Area. It is home to several tenants:
  • Skycharter - private charter operator since 1968
  • Hydro One (formerly Ontario Hydro) Helicopters - used for repair and maintenance work of hydro towers
  • World Aviation Centre - now home to Landmark Aviation

Other airport tenants
  • Peel Regional Police is the primary general police service at the airport. Airport Division is located on 2951 Convair Drive, on the south side of the airport near the Facilities Building along Highway 401.
  • The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) maintain a Toronto Airport Detachment to provide federal police services. The RCMP formerly provided policing at the airport. In December 2009, the RCMP was asked to help the Peel force in policing the airport due to the failed bombing incident at the Detroit airport. The Canada Border Services Agency as well as the Canadian Security Intelligence Service maintain extensive operations at the airport.
  • The Greater Toronto Airports Authority administration offices are located on the south side of the airport. They were re-located when the original office was torn down to make way for the new Terminal 1's parking facilities.
  • Esso Avitat - aviation fuel
  • Shell Aerocentre - aviation fuel
  • Skyservice Business Aviation

Passenger terminals
Terminal 1 building Toronto Pearson International Airport currently has two operating terminals: Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. T1 opened on April 6, 2004. The old Terminal 1, which closed simultaneously, was demolished to make room for additional gates at Pier E. Pier F at Terminal 1, which has an enlarged end called "Hammerhead F", opened on January 30, 2007 to replace Terminal 2. This pier is for international traffic and adds 7 million passengers per year to the airport's total capacity. Redevelopment of the airport was a logistical challenge as the existing terminals remained operational throughout construction and demolition. Pearson is one of eight Canadian airports that has United States border preclearance facilities. US Border Pre-clearance is located in both Terminal 1 and Terminal 3.

Terminal 1
Terminal 1 is designed to handle domestic, international and transborder flights in one facility. The Terminal features three piers: Piers D and E with 38 gates and Pier F with 23 gates. Pier F serves transborder and international flights, replacing Terminal 2 and the Infield Terminal (IFT). A Pier G is slated to be built in the future if demand warrants. The terminal was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP, Adamson Associates Architects, and Moshe Safdie and Associates. All Star Alliance airlines serving Toronto (except for new member Continental Airlines) operate out of Terminal 1; however, the terminal is also used by other airlines which are not members of Star Alliance. Terminal 1 has 58 gates: 101, 103, 105, 107-112, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 131-145, 151, 153, 155, 157, 160-163, 164A-164B, 165, 166A-166B, 167-181, 191, 193

Infield Terminal (IFT)
Moving walkway leading to departure gates Constructed during 2001/02, and opened on April 6, 2003, the IFT was built to handle traffic displaced during the Terminal 1 development. The IFT has 11 gates (521 to 531), and is currently being setup for the G8 and G20 summit leaders attending the Muskoka and Toronto summits in late June 2010. It will also be reactivated once passenger demand rises to a point in which Terminal 1 needs to be expanded again. It has been used as a location for film and television shoots.

East Holdroom
The east holdroom, also referred to as the "east beach," was added in 1990 and originally served as a satellite terminal for the former Terminal 2, handling mostly short-haul flights to the United States for Air Ontario and later, Air Canada Jazz. Although it can only accommodate approximately 12 regional aircraft, the east holdroom has been designated all of Terminal 2's former gate numbers (200-299) and will remain in operation until further expansion of Terminal 1. The east holdroom was originally accessed by a shuttle bus from Terminal 2, but is now accessed by a shuttle bus from Terminal 1 after clearing US immigration and customs at the US Border Preclearance facility. In June 2010, the East Holdroom is scheduled to be decommissioned and aircraft stands east of Gate 193 activated.

Terminal 3
The platform of the LINK Train's Terminal 3 station Terminal 3, which opened on February 21, 1991, was built to offset traffic from the old Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. Terminal 3 was initially advertised as "Trillium Terminal 3" and "The Trillium Terminal". It was built as a private venture and was a state of the art terminal containing, among other things, a US customs pre-clearance facility. A parking garage and a hotel (formerly Swissôtel, now Sheraton) is located across from the terminal. A bridge walkway conveniently connects the terminal to the hotel and parking garage. In 1997 the GTAA purchased Terminal 3, shortly thereafter implementing a C$350 million expansion. The GTAA Terminal 3 Redevelopment Team (T3RD) was formed to oversee the terminal expansion. In 2004, the Pier C Expansion opened. In June 2006, the East Processor Extension (EPE) started operations. With a soaring, undulating roofline, the EPE added 40 new check-in counters, new retail space, more secure 'hold-screening' for baggage and a huge picture window offering one of the most convenient apron viewing locations at the airport. Improved Canadian Border services and a more open arrivals hall were included in Phase I of the expansion. Phase II of the EPE has been completed in 2007 and includes larger security screening areas and additional international baggage claim areas. The West Processor Expansion Shell was completed by early 2008. Most Skyteam and Oneworld airlines serving Pearson operate out of Terminal 3, along with most airlines that are not affiliated with an airline alliance. Terminal 3 has 39 gates: A1-A6, B7-B22, C24-C41

Airport lounges
There are several airport lounges at Pearson Airport. Star Alliance, Skyteam, and OneWorld airlines all maintain lounges within the airport, and there are also several "Pay-In" lounges open for use by all passengers, regardless of airline, frequent flyer status or class of travel. Terminal 1
  • Air Canada Maple Leaf Lounge ( Star Alliance)
    • International ( Level 3, Node F)
    • International - USA ( Level 4, Node F)
    • Domestic
  • Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
    • International ( Near Gate 177)
    • International - USA
    • Domestic
Terminal 3
  • American Airlines Admirals Club ( OneWorld)
  • British Airways The Galleries Club Lounge ( OneWorld)
  • British Airways The Galleries First Lounge ( OneWorld)
  • KLM Crown Lounge ( Skyteam)
  • Plaza Premium Lounge ("Pay-In" Lounge)
    • International
    • Domestic

Airlines and destinations

GTAA Low Cost Parking (Viscount Station) Airlines Destinations Terminal Aerosvit Airlines Kiev-Boryspil 1 Air Canada Antigua, Aruba, Athens , Barbados, Barcelona , Beijing-Capital, Bermuda, Bogotá, Boston, Brussels, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Calgary, Cancún, Caracas, Cayo Coco/Cayo Guillermo, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Cozumel, Deer Lake, Denver, Dublin , Edmonton, Fort Lauderdale, Fort McMurray, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Geneva, George Town/Exuma, Grand Cayman, Grenada , Halifax, Havana, Holguin, Hong Kong, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo , Kelowna, Kingston (Jamaica), La Romana , Las Vegas, Liberia (Costa Rica) , Lima, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid , Mexico City, Miami, Montego Bay, Montréal-Trudeau, Munich, Nassau, New York-LaGuardia, Newark, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Ottawa, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Regina, Rome-Fiumicino , St. John's (NL), St. Maarten , St. Lucia, Samaná , San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San José del Cabo, San Juan , Santa Clara (Cuba), Santiago de Chile, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Sarasota/Bradenton , Saskatoon, Seattle/Tacoma, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Sydney (Australia), Tampa, Tel Aviv, Tokyo-Narita, Vancouver, Varadero, Victoria, Washington-Reagan, West Palm Beach , Winnipeg, Zürich 1 Air Canada operated by Air Georgian Albany, Allentown-Lehigh Valley, Dayton (OH), Grand Rapids (MI), Harrisburg, Hartford, Kingston (ON), Manchester (NH), Portland (ME), Providence, Rochester (NY), Sarnia, Syracuse (NY) 1 Air Canada Jazz Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Charlottetown, Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Fredericton, Hartford, Houston-Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Kingston (ON), London (ON), Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moncton, Montréal-Trudeau, Nashville, Newark, New Orleans , North Bay, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Québec City, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond (VA), Saint John (NB), St. Louis, Sault Ste. Marie, Sudbury, Sydney (NS), Thunder Bay, Timmins, Windsor 1 Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 3 Air India Amritsar , Delhi, London-Heathrow 1 Air Transat All Year: Cancún, Cayo Coco/Cayo Guillermo, Faro, Fort Lauderdale, Glasgow-International, London-Gatwick, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Montréal-Trudeau, Orlando, Porto, Punta Cana, Shannon Summer Seasonal: Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Birmingham (UK), Dublin, Edinburgh, Exeter, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Lamezia Terme, Lisbon, London-Heathrow, Madrid, Málaga, Munich, Newcastle upon Tyne, Pescara, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Rome-Fiumicino, Venice-Marco Polo, Vienna Winter Seasonal: Panama City, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, San José de Costa Rica, San Salvador, Santa Clara (Cuba), Varadero 3 Alitalia Rome-Fiumicino 1 American Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami 3 American Eagle Boston, Chicago-O'Hare, New York-JFK, New York-LaGuardia 3 Austrian Airlines Vienna 1 British Airways London-Heathrow 3 CanJet Antigua, Aruba, Cancún, Cartagena, Cayo Coco/Cayo Guillermo, Cienfuegos, Holguin, Montego Bay, Nassau, Punta Cana, Samaná, Santa Clara (Cuba), Santiago de Cuba, Varadero 3 Caribbean Airlines Port of Spain 3 Caribbean Airlines operated by Air Jamaica Kingston 1 Cathay Pacific Airways Hong Kong 3 Continental Connection operated by CommutAir Cleveland 3 Continental Connection operated by Colgan Air Newark 3 Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines Cleveland, Houston-Intercontinental, Newark 3 Cubana de Aviación Cayo Coco/Cayo Guillermo, Camaguey, Cienfuegos, Havana, Holguin, Santa Clara (Cuba), Santiago de Cuba, Varadero 3 Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines Atlanta, Detroit, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Memphis 3 Delta Connection operated by Comair Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, New York-JFK 3 Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK 3 El Al Tel Aviv 3 Emirates Dubai 1 Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 1 EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan 3 Finnair Helsinki 3 Icelandair Reykjavík-Keflavík 1 Jet Airways Brussels, Delhi 1 Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter Kelowna 3 KLM Amsterdam 3 Korean Air Seoul-Incheon 3 LAN Airlines New York-JFK, Santiago de Chile 3 LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw 1 Lufthansa Düsseldorf , Frankfurt 1 Mexicana Mexico City 1 Pakistan International Airlines Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore 3 SATA International Faro, Lisbon, Ponta Delgada, Porto, Terceira 3 Sunwing Airlines Acapulco, Barbados, Cancún, Cozumel, Cayo Coco/Cayo Guillermo, Camaguey, Fort Lauderdale, Gander (NL), Grenada, Halifax, Holguin, Huatulco, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Kingston (Jamaica), La Ceiba, Las Vegas, La Romana, Liberia (Costa Rica), Manzanillo de Cuba, Montego Bay, Orlando, Panama City, Port of Spain, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Roatán, St. Lucia, St. Petersburg/Clearwater, Santiago de Cuba, Santo Domingo, Stephenville, Varadero 1 TACA International Airlines San Salvador 3 Thomas Cook Airlines Birmingham (UK) , Glasgow-International, London-Gatwick, Manchester (UK) , Newcastle upon Tyne 3 Transaero Moscow-Domodedovo 3 Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk 1 United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, San Francisco 1 United Express operated by GoJet Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Washington-Dulles 1 United Express operated by Shuttle America Chicago O'Hare, Denver, Washington-Dulles 1 United Express operated by Trans States Airlines Washi

Building Activity

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