Stowe House
Stowe House is a Grade I listed country house located in Stowe, Buckinghamshire, England. It is the home of Stowe School, an independent school. The gardens (known as Stowe Landscape Gardens), a significant example of the English Landscape Garden style, along with part of the Park, passed into the ownership of The National Trust in 1989 and are open to the public. The house is open to the public during the school holidays, and there is usually a daily guided tour during term time. The parkland surrounding the gardens is open 365 days a year and access is free.

The Temple family fortune was based on sheep farming, they were first recorded as such at Witney in Oxfordshire. Later from 1546 they had been renting a sheep farm in Burton Dassett in Warwickshire. The Stowe estate was leased from 1571 by Peter Temple, his son John Temple bought the manor & estate of Stowe in 1589 and it became the home of the Temple family. In the late 17th century, the house was completely rebuilt by Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet c.1683 on the present site. This house is now the core of the impressive mansion known today. The old medieval stronghold was located near Stowe parish church that is about 100 yards to the south-east of the current house. Having been redesigned and perfected subsequently over the years, the whole front is now 916 feet (279 m) in length and is a breathtaking sight as you approach from the direction of Buckingham. The long, straight driveway that ran from Buckingham all the way to the front of the house, passing through a 60-foot (18 m) Corinthian arch on the brow of the hill on the way, made for a breathtaking approach that was very humbling and intimidating for visitors to the house. The driveway approach to the house is still in use today, although it no longer runs through the arch. British and Foreign aristocrats & royalty frequently stayed at the house throughout the 18th & 19th centuries. In 1725 Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle and his wife stayed for two weeks. The 1730s & 1740s saw visits by Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, William Pulteney, 1st Earl of Bath; Frederick, Prince of Wales along with other friends of Lord Cobham (see the Temple of Friendship) who were frequent guests. In 1750 John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol attended a reception at the house. In 1754 StanisÅ‚aw August Poniatowski visited the gardens. The 1760s saw two visits by Prince Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau as part of his tours of English gardens in preparation for the creation of the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm. 1768 saw the visit of Christian VII of Denmark. In July 1770 there was a House party lasting several days whose guests included Princess Amelia, Horace Walpole, Lady Mary Coke & William Ponsonby, 2nd Earl of Bessborough. The Prince Regent the future George IV came in 1805 & 1808. Louis XVIII came in January 1808 for several days, the party included Charles, Louis's brother and successor as King of France, Louis Philippe then the Duke of Orléans who would be France's last ever king & Louis Henri, Prince of Condé. 1810 saw the visit of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. The Tsar Alexander I of Russia visited in 1810 & in 1814 Grand Duke Michael of Russia. 1816 saw a visit by Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau. Then in 1818 Nicholas I of Russia while still grand duke visited, the same year saw the first of many visits by William IV then Duke of Clarence after his death his widow Queen Adelaide stayed in 1840, that year also saw visits by Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge & his son Prince George. In 1843 there were several visits by German royalty, Ernest Augustus I of Hanover and his wife Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz stayed at the house, John of Saxony & Wilhelm I, German Emperor then a prince. Queen Victoria & Prince Albert stayed at the house for several days in 1845. Due to financial problems the family let the estate to Prince Philippe, Count of Paris from 1889 to 1894, he died that year in the house, his body was laid in state in the Marble Saloon, during which The prince of Wales paid his respects. Famous non-royal visitors included: Alexander Pope a frequent visitor from 1724 onwards, in 1726 Pope visited in the company of Jonathan Swift & John Gay; another writer and friend to Lord Cobham who visited in the 1720s was William Congreve; in 1730 James Thomson wrote the poem Seasons after visiting the gardens; in 1732 Gilbert West a nephew of Lord Cobham's, wrote his poem Stowe after visiting the gardens; 1750 saw the first of eight visits by Sanderson Miller; the 1750s also saw visits by Jean-Jacques Rousseau; in 1770 Thomas Whately wrote an extensive description of the gardens; François-Joseph Bélanger visited in 1777-8 and drew the gardens. Thomas Jefferson came in 1786. William Crotch visited in 1805, as did Charles James Fox in the party that included the Prince Regent.

The Temple-Grenville family
The propensity to marry heiresses is shown by the family name being changed to Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville by the late 18th-century. The following family members were the owners of the estate and creators of the house & gardens as they now exist:
  • Peter Temple ?-1578 leased the estate in 1571.
  • John Temple 1542-1603 first inherits the lease from his father Peter then purchased the estate in 1589.
  • Sir Thomas Temple 1567 - c. 1637, 1st Baronet, he inherited from his father John.
  • Sir Peter Temple 1592”“1653 2nd Baronet, he was given the estate by his father the 1st Baronet in 1630.
  • Sir Richard Temple 1634-1697 3rd Baronet, he inherited the estate from his father the 2nd Baronet.
  • Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 1675-1749 4th Baronet later Baron Cobham and finally Viscount Cobham, he inherited from his father the 3rd Baronet.
  • Richard Grenville-Temple 1711-1779 2nd Earl Temple, he inherited from his uncle Viscount Cobham.
  • George Nugent-Temple-Grenville 1753-1813 1st Marquess of Buckingham, he inherited from his uncle 2nd Earl Temple.
  • Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 1776-1839 2nd Marquess of Buckingham later 1st Duke of Buckingham & Chandos, he inherited from his father the 1st Marquess of Buckingham.
  • Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 1797-1861 2nd Duke of Buckingham & Chandos, he inherited from his father the 1st Duke.
  • Richard Plantagenet Campbell Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 1823-1889 3rd Duke of Buckingham & Chandos, he inherited from his father the 2nd Duke.
  • Lady Mary Morgan-Grenville 1852-1944 11th Baroness Kinloss, she inherited from her father the 3rd Duke.
  • Richard G. Morgan-Grenville 1887-1914 was given the estate in 1908 by his mother Lady Kinloss, he was killed fighting in the First World War.
  • The Reverend Luis C.F.T. Morgan-Grenville 1889-1944 inherited the estate on the death of his brother Richard, and sold it in 1921.

Gallery of the main creators of Stowe
John Temple was the first member of the family to serve as High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire and also Justice of the peace. Sir Thomas Temple first purchased a Knighthood in 1603 from James I then purchased from the same monarch the baronetcy in 1611. He was the first member of the family to serve as a Member of Parliament in 1588-9. Sir Peter Temple was a supporter of Oliver Cromwell and served as a colonel in the parliamentary army during the English Civil War. When the War of the Spanish Succession broke out in 1702 the 4th Baronet was appointed a colonel by William III, he was later promoted to Lieutenant General. First created Baron Cobham in 1714 by King George I, then in 1718 Viscount Cobham by the same king. In 1715 he married Anne Halsey an heiress of a rich London brewer, she bought a dowry of £20,000. He was a member of the Kit-Cat Club where he probably first met fellow members John Vanbrugh and Joseph Addison whose writings on garden design influenced the development of the gardens at Stowe. Cobham was the centre of the Whig party grouping of Cobhamites. His sister Hester was created Countess of Temple in her own right in 1749 by King George II, from which her son, heir to the estate inherited his title as 2nd Earl Temple. Richard Grenville the future 2nd Earl Temple, married Anna Chamber in 1737, an heiress with a £50,000 fortune. He was leader of the Whig group known as the Grenvillites. King George II made Earl Temple a Knight of the Garter in 1760. Earl Temple was an active supporter of John Wilkes. When the Earl's cousin George Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe died in 1762 he left his Vanbrugh designed house Eastbury Park and estates in Dorset to Earl Temple. Who attempted to sell the house, but as no buyer could be found, so demolished most of the building using the marble from the house in the Marble Saloon at Stowe. The Eastbury estate was finally sold in 1806. The 2nd Earl Temple's sister Hester married William Pitt the Elder who became Prime Minister of Great Britain. Their son William Pitt the Younger also served as Prime Minister. George Grenville the brother of the 2nd Earl Temple was also to serve as Prime Minister. William Grenville youngest brother of the 1st Marquess of Buckingham also served as Prime Minister, it was during his premiership that the Atlantic slave trade was abolished. The final family member to be Prime Minister was William Ewart Gladstone, he married Catherine Glynne the granddaughter of Catherine sister of the 1st Marquess of Buckingham. Other notable politicians in the family included Thomas Grenville the brother of the 1st Marquess, Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent the father-in-law of the 1st Marquess, Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford brother of William Pitt the elder, George Nugent-Grenville, 2nd Baron Nugent brother of the 1st Duke and the 1st Marquess's nephew Richard Griffin, 3rd Baron Braybrooke. George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, undertook the grand tour in 1774, in 1775 he married a Catholic heiress Mary Nugent, who had an income of £14,000 a year. He was created 1st Marquess of Buckingham in 1784 by King George III. On the death in 1788 of the Marquess's father-in-law Robert Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent he inherited the Earl's Irish (8,900 acres (3,600 ha)) and Cornish estates. The 2nd Marquess of Buckingham married in 1796 Anna Eliza Brydges the daughter and heiress of James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos who had died in 1789. He thus acquires this wife's estates in Hampshire and Middlesex. Up until 1822 the family had been staunch Whigs, but in order to obtain the long sought Dukedom the family became Tories. The Dukedom was bestowed in 1822 by King George IV on Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 2nd Marquess who became the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. The deal was to support the then Prime Minister Lord Liverpool's administration. The family spent a great deal of money to control several rotten boroughs, including Old Sarum, whose M.P.s switch their support to the prime minister, although the 1832 Reform Act would end this practise. The 1st Duke was a Colonel in the Royal Buckinghamshire Militia (King's Own), he led his battalion in 1814 to France under the command of The Duke of Wellington. The 2nd Duke through his mother Anna was descended from the House of Plantagenet and was an active member of the Royal Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, his support of which added to the debts of £1,464,959 (well over £100,000,000 in 2003 terms) he had accrued by 1845, he was called the Greatest Debtor in the world. The Duke left to live abroad in August 1847 to escape his creditors. That year saw the sale of the family's London home Buckingham House in Pall Mall. In March 1848 the family estates in Ireland, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Cornwall, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire & Middlesex some 36,000 acres (15,000 ha) of land, were sold. Followed by the most valuable of the paintings, furniture and other art works at Stowe, over 21,000 bottles of wine and over 500 of spirits in the wine cellars below the Marble Saloon, were all sold from 15 August to 7 October 1848 by Christies. The auction was held in The State Dining Room, but only raised £75,400. At the end of the sales the estate had contract to the core 10,000 acres (4,000 ha) in Buckinghamshire. The garden staff were cut from 40 to 4. Richard Plantagenet Campbell Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos (10 September 1823”“26 March 1889), usually shortened to Richard Temple-Grenville, was a British statesman of the 19th century, and a close friend and subordinate of Benjamin Disraeli. He was styled Marquess of Chandos until the death of his father in 1861. With the death of the third Duke of Buckingham and Chandos in 1889, there remained no heirs-male to the dukedom, so it became extinct. After which ownership of the estate was separated from the title Earls Temple of Stowe which passed by special remainder in the letters patent creating it through the female line to a nephew of the 3rd Duke William Temple-Gore-Langton the son of Lady Anna Eliza Mary Grenville sister of the 3rd Duke. The fall of the family engendered Lord Rosebery's comment "The glories of the House built up with so much care and persistence, vanished like a snow wreath". After the death of her father the 3rd Duke, Lady Mary Morgan-Grenville tried to sell house and estate for £200,000, but nobody wished to buy it. It was then rented until 1894 after which the house remained unoccupied until 1901 when Lady Mary returned as a widow, her husband Major Luis Morgan-Grenville having died in 1896 and she lived in the house until 1908 when she passed it onto her unmarried son as he came of age at 21. The last inheritor of the estate Rev. Luis C.F.T. Morgan-Grenville, due to prodigious debts, sold the house, gardens and part of the park in 1921 to a Mr Harry Shaw for £50,000 who intended to present the house to the nation. But being unable to pay for an endowment to maintain the building it was sold again in 1922 to the governors of what became Stowe School, this opened on the 11th May 1923. The rest of the estate was sold as separate lots, Clough Williams-Ellis purchased the Grand Avenue to prevent its felling to create building plots, later he gifted it to the school. The gardens remained in the ownership of the School until 1989 when a anonymous donor provided funds for an endowment and the National Trust assumed ownership. In 1997 the ownership of the house passed to the Stowe House Preservation Trust, the major aim of which is to restore the building.

The House

The architectural history
The House is the result of four main periods of development these are:
  • 1677-1683 under Sir Richard Temple, this involved the building of the central block. The architect was William Cleare who worked for Sir Christopher Wren as his chief joiner. The house was of brick four floors high including the basement and attics and thirteen bays in length.
  • 1720s-1733 under Viscount Cobham, including the addition of the Ionic North tetrastyle Portico by Vanbrugh and the rebuilding of the north, east and west fronts. After Vanbrugh's death in 1726 work continued under William Kent it was probably he who designed the now demolished two-tier south portico that consisted of four Tuscan columns with four Ionic or Composite columns above.
  • 1740s-1760 under Viscount Cobham, the expansion of the both the western and eastern state apartments.
  • 1770-1779 under Earl Temple having first obtained a design from Jacques-François Blondel for the new south front of the house, which did not meet with the Earl's approval, in 1771 Robert Adam produced a new design for the south front, this design was adapted and made more uniform by Thomas Pitt assisted by Giovanni Battista Borra and was finished in 1779. The interiors of the new state apartments were not completed until 1788 much of the interior work being by an Italian, Vincenzo Valdrè (1742”“1814). At the same time the final remodelling of the North Front was taking place, this involved the erection in 1770-1772 of the two twin quadrant colonnades of Ionic columns that flank the facade, these maybe to Robert Adam's design. The northern ends of the colonnades are linked to screen-walls containing gateways by William Kent which were moved from the forecourt to this position and heightened in 1775 by Vincenzo Valdrè, the east gateway leads to the stable court the west to the kitchen court. At right angles to these walls stand the arches designed by Giacomo Leoni c.1740, these were formal entrances to the gardens, they now lead to various buildings put up by the school.
The exterior of the House has not been significantly changed since 1779. However some interiors have been altered, the Marquess of Buckingham in 1793 converted The East Gallery into The Large Library and in the first decade of the 19th century on the ground floor created the Gothic Library to the designs of Sir John Soane a rare example of Soane using the Gothic style. Also at this time the Egyptian Hall was added beneath the North Portico as a secondary entrance.

Gallery of architects, garden designers and artists who worked at Stowe

The south facade
The showpiece of the House is the south facade overlooking the gardens. This is one of the finest examples of neoclassical architecture in Britain. The main front stretches over 460 feet (140 m). Divided into five major sections, these are: the central block around 130 feet (40 m) in width, the lower linking sections 75 feet (23 m) wide that contain on the west the State Dining Room and on the east The Large Library, then at the ends the two pavilions the same height as the central block about 90 feet (27 m) in width. The central block and the end pavilions are articulated at piano nobile level with unfluted Corinthian pilasters over 35 feet (11 m) tall which becomes a hexastyle portico supporting a pediment in the middle of the facade, there is a minor order of 48 Ionic columns over 20 feet (6.1 m) high that runs the length of the facade. The portico fronts a loggia that contains the doorway to the Marble Saloon, this is flanked by large niches that used to contain ancient Roman statues, between the columns of the portico used to be the marble sculpture of Vertumnus and Pomona by Laurent Delvaux now in the V&A. Above the niches is a large frieze on a Bacchic theme, this is based on an engraving in James Stuart's and Nicholas Revett's Antiquities of Athens of the frieze on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates. There is a flight of thirty three steps the full width of the portico which descends to the South Lawn. The staircase has solid parapets either side that end in sculptures of lions, 1927 replacements for the original bronze lions, standing and resting a paw on a ball (sold in 1921 and now in Stanley Park, Blackpool), that were of a slightly larger scale. Either side of the portico are two tripartite windows separated and flanked by Ionic columns, these are enclosed with an arch that contains a carved Portland stone tondo in the tympanum with carvings of The four seasons, and is in turn flanked by twin Corinthian pilasters the same size as the columns of the portico. The facade is surmounted by a balustraded parapet, in the centre of the parapet of the east pavilion is a sculpture of two reclining figures of Ceres and Flora the corresponding figures on the west pavilion are of Liberty and Religion. The end pavilions each have three tripartite windows matching those on the central block, the tondos of which are each carved with a sacrificial scene. The ground floor is lower than the floor above, about 15 feet (4.6 m) in height and visually acts as a base to the facade, it is of banded rustication with simple arched windows beneath each window on the upper floor. In 1790 a balustrade was added parallel to the façade that ran from the bottom of the steps the full length of the house and then returned at both ends, there are a series of 30 pedestals along the balustrade, that until their sale in 1921 were topped by bronze urns. This was probably added to keep visitors from the lower windows of the house, and formal flower beds were laid out in the area.

The major interiors
During the sales of 1921 & 1922 all the remaining furnishing and art works not sold in 1848 were auctioned, as were several fittings including chimneypieces. Some of the family portraits and other items associated with the house have been bought back and are now on display in the House. Several owners of Stowe undertook the Grand Tour, Earl Temple spent 1729-33 in France, Switzerland & Italy, the 1st Marquess in 1774 visited Italy, the 2nd Duke before he inherited his title in 1817, and the 1st Duke in 1827-29 toured the Mediterranean Sea aboard his yacht the Anna Eliza named after his wife. Many of the art works that adorned the house were acquired both during these trips and through the 1st Duke inheriting his father-in-law's art collection. The 1st Duke before he inherited Stowe, also bought paintings at the sale of the Orleans Collection in 1798 and continued to buy paintings for another twenty years as well as books, engravings and the Stowe Service of Worcester Porcelain, as well as archaeological specimens. The main rooms are mainly located on the 1st floor (referred to in the U.S.A. as the 2nd floor) Piano nobile, a few are on the ground floor (referred to in the U.S.A. as the 1st floor). The piano nobile of Stowe. The front entrance is at D. The Marble Saloon is B. Rooms P and Q also served as the state dressing room and bedroom at times. For scale, rooms O and L are each 75 feet (23 m) long. There are service wings to either side which are not shown. The major rooms are:
  • The North Hall located behind the north portico this is the main entrance hall of the house and the least changed of the rooms dating from the 1730s. The ceiling has a deep cove, and was painted by William Kent in grisaille on gold background imitating mosaic. There are six classical deities depicted in the cove, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Apollo and Diana. There are also nine of the signs of the zodiac. The flat centre of the ceiling is enclosed in a plaster beam, which in turn encloses a square with a circle within which encloses a painting of Mars. The south wall has in its centre a large set of doors which lead into The Marble Saloon, either side of these doors are portraits by Sir William Beechey of on left Richard, first Duke of Buckingham & Chandos on the right Anna Eliza, First Duchess of Buckingham & Chandos she is depicted with her son later the 2nd Duke. The west wall has above the fireplace Thomas Banks's white marble relief of Caractacus before the Emperor Claudius in its centre which is flanked by two doors. The east wall has above a small staircase leading to the ground floor, Christophe Veyrier's white marble relief of The family of Darius before Alexander the Great in its centre flanked by two doors. Works of art sold in 1848 that use to be in this room include Anthony van Dyck's portrait of the Marquess of Vienville, and among other sculpture two marble vases bought as Ancient Roman but actually the work of Giovanni Battista Piranesi, one of these is now in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
  • The Marble Saloon is the grandest interior in the House, located immediately behind the south portico. Based on the Pantheon. It is elliptical in plan, 63 feet (19 m) by 45 feet (14 m), the domed ceiling is over 56 feet (17 m) high. The room was probably designed by Vincenzo Valdrè, the basic structure was built between 1775-77 but decoration was probably only complete by 1788 at a cost of £12,000. The lower half of the walls are surrounded by 16 unfluted Roman Doric columns made from red scagliola with white veins that mimics Sicilian Jasper the work of Domenico Bartoli and with white marble capitals and bases, supporting a richly detailed Doric entablature of white plaster with satyrs on the metopes. Hanging from the soffit of the entablature between each pair of columns are replica brass lanterns with glass domes, these are copies of the original light fittings. These columns flank four doors on the cardinal directions, the rest flank plain niches that once contained eight Ancient Roman statues these were sold in 1848, new plaster casts of eight statues from the Berlin State Museums were added to the niches flanking each door and were unveiled in September 2009. Added at the same time to the niches between each pair of statues were fibreglass copies of the original gilded Athéniennes (or Torchieres), the originals were made of timber and painted and gilded to resemble metal. Above the niches and doorways are white plaster rectangular reliefs depicting arms and trophies. Above the entablature is the very elaborate frieze, this consists of over 280 human and 14 animals in plaster all alto-relievo, the sculptor was probably Charles Peart. The subject of the frieze is the suovetaurilia. The dome is coffered of white plaster, there are 160 coffers nearly all of unique shape. The coffers contain highly decorated rosettes, and the ribs in between are also very elaborately decorated. There is a central skylight also elliptical. The floor is made of 72 four foot square slabs of white Carrara marble resting on a brick vault, in the centre of the floor is a metal grill part of the heating system. This is the first room to be fully restored to its pre-1848 condition.
The dome of The Marble Saloon
  • The State Music Room to the east of The Marble Saloon is about 30 by 40 feet (12 m), probably designed by Valdrè and finished in the early 1780s. With an apse in the centre of the north wall, there are doors at each end of the side walls, though only the northern pair are real, the other two are false doors. The north has within the apse two sets of doors flanking a niche that is surrounded by a decorative frame. There are two un-fluted scagliola Corinthian columns on the corners of the apse and also within it flanking the niche. The walls are painted with panels in the form of Grotesques and Arabesques. The chimneypiece in the centre of the east wall of white marble inset with panels of rosso antico marble and with carved decoration of musical instruments in white marble and ormolu, this chimneypiece was sold in 1922 but bought back in 1991, a new mirror above the chimneypiece was made to replace the original one. The plaster ceiling has gilt molded decoration and seven inset paintings. The central painting is circular and is of The Dance of the Hours after Guido Reni and is flanked to the north and south by two rectangular paintings of the four seasons. Between these large paintings are four smaller ones of landscape scenes. All the paintings are believed to be by Valdrè. The four crystal chandeliers are modern replacements for the original ones. The ancient Roman sculpture the Marine Venus that use to stand in the niche, was purchased by Queen Victoria at the 1848 sale and is now at Osborne House. This has been replaced in the niche by a bust of William Pitt the elder by Joseph Wilton, which is on loan to the house. There is mention of a chamber organ in the room in 1779. Also sold in 1848 were two Italian neo-classical side tables with Verd antique tops the frames being carved with plaques of Leda and the Swan and Juno and her peacock, these are both now in the Wallace Collection.
  • The Large Library, one of the three libraries in the house, is 75 feet (23 m) by 25 feet (7.6 m), it is located to the east of The State Music Room. This room was created in 1793 from the former East Gallery. The plaster ceiling dates from then, with its elaborate cornice supporting a deep coffered cove in each corner of which are clusters of grapes, the flat centre of the ceiling has elaborate decoration, including in the border of the central panel mermen holding and feeding a griffin. The main entrance is in the centre of the long north wall. There are chimneypieces in the centre of each end wall, these are of white marble with flanking caryatids, the jambs are of black marble, one dates from 1792 which is a copy of the other probably dating from the 1760s. Above each chimneypiece is a mirror. The bookcases are of mahogany there are over five hundred shelves on the lower walls and they have their original doors with brass wire grilles. The walls are completely covered by the shelving, even the walls between the seven windows of the south wall. The upper two hundred and forty shelves are accessed via a gallery running around the east, north and west walls. The over 20,000 volumes that were on these shelves, largely collected by the 1st Marquess of Buckingham were sold in January 1849, at Sotheby's, the sale lasted 24 days. There are a series of three marble busts in the windows that were sold from the house in 1921 but have been repurchased, these are: 1st Duke of Buckingham and Chandos by Raimondo Trentanova, Frederick III, German Emperor and Victoria, Princess Royal both carved by Tito Angelini. Also there are small busts above the bookcases on the window wall, Homer, Francis Bacon, Isaac Newton, Horace, Demosthenes and another of Homer. These were sold in 1921 but donated to the House and returned to their original positions.
  • The State Drawing Room also called The Temple Room. Is to the west of The Marble Saloon is about 30 by 40 feet (12 m), with an apse in the centre of the north wall, there are doors at each end of the side walls, though only the northern pair are real, the other two are false doors. The plaster ceiling is probably a design of Valdrè. Decorated in neo-classical style with a symmetrical arrangement of nereids, tazzas, paterae and other motifs, originally the details were gilt but this was replaced by silver in 1965 restoration, the ceiling dates from 1776 and was executed by James Lovell. The original marble fireplace dated 1777 was sold in 1922 and is now in Spain at the headquarters of Grupo Santander, it contains an antique alabaster bas-relief from Egypt of a Sacrifice to Bacchus. The north wall has an engaged fluted Corinthian columns of wood flanking the apse and a further two within it, there are quarter columns in the corners of the room. The walls used to be hung with red Damask and the finest paintings in the collection hung on the walls. There being in 1838 fifty two paintings hanging on the walls, including: Helena Fourment by Rubens she was his second wife, now in the Barber Institute; The Exposition of Moses by Nicholas Poussin now in the Ashmolean Museum; The Finding of Moses by Salvator Rosa now in the The Detroit Institute of Arts; Assumption of the Virgin by Murillo now in the Wallace Collection; Philip Baptising the Eunuch by Albert Cuyp now at Anglesey Abbey; View of a Village by David Teniers the Younger now in the National Gallery and The Persian Sybil by Domenichino now in the Wallace Collection; several of these works were acquired at the sale of the Orleans Collection. Also the finest pieces of Sèvres porcelain of the over 200 in the collection used to be displayed in this room, but these were sold in 1848. The furnishings included several pieces from the Doge's Palace which are now in other British collections. Iincluding an hexagonal side table, the top inlaid with various marbles in the Wallace Collection, two gilt gesso side tables one is in the V&A the other at Sudeley Castle.
  • The State Dining Room is 75 feet (23 m) by 25 feet (7.6 m). Located to the west of The State Drawing Room, created in the 1740s the probable architect being either Henry Flitcroft or 'Capability' Brown. This was The State Gallery until 1817 when it assumed its current name. The ceiling has an elaborate plaster entablature supporting a deep cove, this has painted decoration dated 1747 by Francesco Sleter, including Hebe feeding Jupiter's Eagle east, Cupid playing with two Graces north, Cupid asleep with two Graces south and Diana and her Hounds west, the spaces between these paintings are decorated with animals including swans and their cygnets,

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