Port of Haydarpaşa
The Port of Haydarpaşa, also known as the Port of Haidar Pasha ( Turkish: Haydarpaşa Limanı) is a general cargo seaport, ro-ro and container terminal, situated in Haydarpaşa, Istanbul at the southern entrance to the Bosphorus. The port is operated by the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) and serves a hinterland which includes the country's most industrialized areas. It is the biggest container port in the Marmara Region and with an annual cargo volume exceeding six million metric tons (MT), is Turkey's third biggest port after Mersin and Izmir.

History
Port construction was commenced by the Anatolian Railway on April 20, 1899. The Company operated the port until the newly established Turkish Republic purchased it on May 24, 1924. On May 31, 1927, the port's administration was handed over to the Turkish State Railways, which is controlled by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. On February 5, 1953, an extension project for the Port of Haydarpaşa was undertaken. The first part of the extension was completed in 1954 and the remainder in 1967.

Port facilities
The Port has 21 berths alongside two large piers. The berths are specialized for particular port industries, with one for motor boat servicing at 150 m length, two for dry bulk cargo (430 m long), 8 large size berths for general cargo (between 160 and 334 m), 3 midsize general cargo berths (between 50 and 97 m), two ro-ro terminals (141 and 164 m) and finally 5 container terminals (between 295 and 350 m). The depth of water at the quays varies between 5 and 10 m. The vessels in the port are protected by two breakwaters from all kinds of effects caused by the weather and sea. Sea crafts of the port comprise 3 tugboats up to 2500 HP and 2 mooring watercrafts.

Container terminal
Total container handling capacity of the five container terminals is 1,200 vessels a year. Operations are carried out by 4 quayside gantry cranes of 40 tons capacity, 18 rubber tired transtainers (40 tons capacity), 9 reach stackers (25 to 42 tons) and 8 empty container forklifts (8 to 10 tons). 9 shore and yard cranes (3 to 35 tons), 6 mobile cranes (5 to 25 tons), 8 standard and 30 small masted forklifts are also available. Another facility available at the terminal is the provision of reefer facilities for refrigerated containers. The space for container terminal is nearly 100.000 m킲 with a holding capacity of 6,000 Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). The annual handling capacity of the Port is 144,000 TEU. A container freight station of 3,600 m킲 is available behind the container quay. In addition to the open storage area of 313,000 m킲 and covered area of 21,000 m킲, there exists a container land terminal outside the port in Gí¶ztepe for stacking the empty containers. It covers an area of 55,000 m킲 with a holding capacity of 52,800 TEU. Container loading and unloading, and custom clearance are made in the terminal at the port.

Ro-ro terminal
The newly built ro-ro terminal can accommodate 360 vessels per year, and handle 410,000 tons of cargo, 65,000 trucks and 60,000 cars a year. There are daily ro-ro services between the ports Haydarpaşa and Trieste, Italy and ConstanÅ£a, Romania.

General cargo handling equipments
At the port, 1,134 general cargo ships can be serviced a year. The floating crafts comprise one floating crane of 250 tons capacity, 17 shore and yard cranes (3 to 35 tons), 17 mobile cranes (5 to 25 tons), 67 general cargo forklifts (2 to 5 tons), one loader, 6 tractors, 25 trailers (40 tons), 10 trailers (20 tons) and two weigh-bridges of 100 tons capacity.

Bulk handling facilities
Two berths serve the dry bulk traffic of up to 79 vessels a year. A grain silo of 34,000 tons capacity belonging to the Turkish Grain Board (TMO) is available and has a conveyor connection with the quay.

Rail ferry terminal
The rail ferry terminal and ferries are operated between Sirkeci and Haydarpaşa, the two sides of Bosphorus. Each of the three rail ferries with 480 tons capacity can transfer 14 rail carriages.

Port navigation
Pilotage is compulsory for berthing and unberthing and anchoring. The service is provided by the Turkish Maritime Administration (TDÄ°) round the clock. Pilots meet vessels west of a line passing through the light on the breakwater of Kumkapı Fishing Boat Harbour on the European side of Marmara Sea. Towage, not necessary for the vessels up to 2,000 GRT, and mooring boat is compulsory and arranged by pilot. The service is provided by the Port Authority round the clock.

Future project
A tourism project is envisaged to evaluate land and achieve urban transformation, which came up 2003, foresees that Haydarpaşa will contribute to economic, cultural and social life through the station, port and hinterland. Haydarpaşa will be left inactive after the completion of the Marmaray Project and removal of the port to the Port of Ambarlı, the second biggest port of Istanbul.