New Passenger Terminal - Zagreb AirportEdit profile
URBAN PLANNING CONCEPT. The development of the Zagreb Airport NPT emerges as the prime urban radiation factor, directing its penetration forces towards the metropolitan environment and particularly towards the city of Velika Gorica, which is located in its vicinity. The definition of the mentioned agglomeration is being transformed by the new, complex distribution of urban structures formed along the new linear spinal axes, connecting central Velika Gorica with the new NPT area and coming together within the Airport City. GROWING A GREEN CONCEPT The NPT building is designed to sustain a major energy crisis possibly caused by a failure of all standard energy supply sources. In that case building operation and activities can be powered using solar energy. The proposed design complies with the international agreement about the reduction of CO levels: by 5% in Croatia, relative to 1991 levels, and a 20% participation of renewable energy resources in the total energy production by year 2020. The ecologically sustainable concept of the design is based on: ??Ventilation of the double glazed building envelope and the roof ??Large surface area of photo-voltaic cells (8,500 m2) for an ecologically sound generation of electrical energy ??A tri-generation plants, which produces electricity, hot water and cold water using synergy ??Water collection, processing and management from all areas of the complex, such as roofs, aprons, runnways, sanitary areas etc. ??Comprehensive control and management of all energy and utility resources with an Energy Management System (EMS) ??Selection of the best technical solutions and the use of materials which contribute to the quality and ecological sustainability ??Use of large glazed areas and translucent material in the departure and arrival halls, as well as the pier, which allow the penetration of significant amounts of natural light into the building and thus save energy. The double-skin building envelope has laminated tempered glass on the outside, with an insulating 1.20 m wide air cavity, and double glazed surface on the inside. The building envelope structure is made of steel. The buffer between the two layers of glazing is unconditioned and mechanically vented with fans. The cavity is wide enough to allow maintenance work, and (to facilitate maintenance) has steel grating on each floor. A shading system that consists of perforated vertical curtains is used inside the buffer and in front of the interior double glazed surface. DESIGN AND SPATIAL QUALITY Specific architectural form is generated by the unique blend of both aesthetic phenomena and functional requirements which combine environmental, symbolic and historical paradigms of human development with openness to both global principles and the inherent local culture. On the one hand, the creation of the architectural form relies on the strictly functional philosophy of the complex terminal structure, while on the other, the ultimate architectural form is the result of the unique urban landscape and environmental context which allows for different aesthetic attributions and denotes the symbolism of meaning using indexes, signs and symbols. FUNCTIONS AND FULFILLMENT OF THE SPACE REQUIREMENT PLAN The basic processes that are executed within the proposed airport terminal building – primary functions - include passenger services (departure, arrival) and baggage handling. Secondary functions facilitate standard movement and increase the overall quality of passenger terminal habitat. Functional organization is developed and distributed vertically among the four levels. TRAFFIC SYSTEM Access to the airport building is secured via road and railroad connections with direct junctions leading to Zagreb city centre. Railway connection is planned via a corridor in the direction: Zagreb Central train station – Homeland bridge – airport building, and continuing towards the existing airport building (which has a planned railway station). The planned length of the Pleso airport metro station is 135 m, which is adequate for a standard 4-6 carriage train. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN Building energy efficiency design considerations for the new terminal building are as follow: Generation of electricity with photo-voltaic (PV) cells. Double skin building envelope. Selection of the most appropriate glass type for the building envelope. Daylighting. Shading of exposed glazing surfaces. Glare prevention. Energy management systems (EMS). Water management and conservation. STEEL ROOF STRUCTURE The airport building and its side piers are covered by a steel truss construction. The steel truss is formed in such a way that its outer layers resemble a shell like structure. Distance between its upper and lower layer is variable, 3m above the main airport building, and 1.3 m above the piers. Outer layers of the truss are slightly curved, which is achieved by polygonal placement of steel members. The layout of the bearing steel members is set to fit the base module of 7.2 x 7.2m. Pier roof structure is comprised of arch steel truss girders, displaced and crossed longitudinally. Each arch is spanning the hypotenuse of a triangle 7.2 m longitudinally by 14.4 m transversely.