Melbourne Airport
Melbourne Airport ( IATA: MEL, ICAO: YMML), also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne and the second busiest in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the sole international airport of the four airports serving the Melbourne metropolitan area. The airport is 23 kilometres (14 mi) from the city centre. The airport has its own postcode" Melbourne Airport, Victoria ( postcode 3045). This is adjacent to the suburb of Tullamarine. The Melbourne" Sydney air route is the fourth most-travelled passenger air route in the world and the busiest in the Asia Pacific region. The airport features direct flights to 33 destinations in all states and territories of Australia in addition to numerous destinations in Oceania, Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most common destination for the airports of five of Australia's seven capital cities. N1 Melbourne serves as a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Blue, while Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia utilise the airport as home base. Melbourne is the busiest airport for international export freight as of September 2010, while second busiest for import freight. Domestically, Melbourne serves as headquarters for Australian air Express and Toll Priority and handles more domestic freight than any other airport in the nation. In 2003, Melbourne received the International Air Transport Association Eagle Award for service and two National Tourism Awards for tourism services. Skytrax, an airline consultancy company, classifies Melbourne as a five-star airport. The airport comprises four terminals: one international terminal, two domestic terminals and one budget domestic terminal.

History
Before the opening of Melbourne Airport, Melbourne's main airport was Essendon Airport which was officially designated an international airport in 1950. In the mid 1950s, over 10,000 passengers were using Essendon Airport and the limitations of Essendon Airport were beginning to become apparent. Essendon Airport's facilities were insufficient to meet the increasing demand for air travel; the runways were too short to handle the then new jet airliners and the terminals failed to handle the increase in passengers, by the mid 1950s, an international overflow terminal was built in a new northern hangar. Due to the encroachment of the urban boundary, the airport had become surrounded by residential housing, meaning that expansion of Essendon Airport was not possible. In October 1964, Ansett Australia launched the Boeing 727, the first jet aircraft used for domestic air travel in Australia, placing further strain on Essendon and increasing the need for a new airport. On 27 November 1962, Prime Minister Robert Menzies announced a five-year plan to provide Melbourne with a A$45 million "jetport" by 1967. A site in Tullamarine was chosen, maintaining proximity to Essendon. In line with the five-year plan, the runways were ready to handle the larger aircraft that Essendon could not handle by 1967, but passenger flights remained at Essendon. Air Force One landed at the airport on 22 December 1967, carrying United States President Lyndon B. Johnson. On 1 July 1970, the airport opened to international operations by Prime Minister John Gorton, ending Essendon's near 2 decade run as Melbourne International Airport. Essendon still was home to domestic flights for one year, until they were transferred to Melbourne Airport on 26 June 1971, and the first arrival of a Boeing 747 occurred later that year. In the first year of operations, Melbourne handled six international airlines and 155,275 international passengers In 1988, the Australian Government formed the Federal Airports Corporation (FAC) and placed Melbourne Airport under operational control of the FAC along with 21 other airports around the nation. The domestic terminals were significantly upgraded in 1990, and an upgrade of the international terminals began in 1991. In April 1994, the Australian Government announced that all airports operated by Federal Airports Corporation would be privatised in several phases. The carparks were upgraded between 1995 and August 1997. Melbourne Airport was privatised on 2 July 1997 when it was leased to the newly formed Australia Pacific Airports Corporation Limited. In July 1997, the Melbourne Airport website was launched, providing Australia's first real-time flight operations data over the internet. Since privatisation, further improvements to infrastructure have begun at the airport, including expansion of runways, car parks and terminals. Melbourne Airport was originally called Tullamarine Airport, after the adjacent suburb of the same name. Tullamarine derives from the indigenous name Tullamareena. International has sporadically been used in the name of the airport. After privatisation, the name changed to Melbourne Airport, following the lead of most other major Australian airports. Locally, the airport is commonly referred to as Tullamarine or simply as Tulla to distinguish the airport from the other Melbourne airports: Avalon, Essendon and Moorabbin.

Terminals
Melbourne Airport's terminals have 56 gates: 40 domestic and 16 international. There are six dedicated freighter parking positions on the Southern Freighter Apron. The current terminal numbering system was introduced in July 2005; they were previously known as Qantas Domestic, International, and South (formerly Ansett Domestic).

Terminal 1
Terminal 1 hosts domestic services for Qantas Group airlines, Qantas, Jetstar and QantasLink and is located to the northern end of the building. Departures are located on the first floor, while arrivals are located on the ground floor. The terminal has 15 parking bays served by aerobridges; 11 are served by single aerobridges whilst 4 are served by double aerobridges. In late 1999, an expanded Qantas terminal was opened, featuring a second pier, a new access roadway and the expansion of the terminal. The works cost $50 million and took two years to complete. Today, a wide range of shops and food outlets are situated at the end of the terminal near the entrance into Terminal 2. Qantas has a Qantas Club, Business Class and a Chairmans lounge in the terminal.

Terminal 2
Terminal 2 handles all international flights out of Melbourne Airport. The terminal has 15 gates with aerobridges, (although gates 18 & 20 are yet to be fitted and gate 3 is used for construction vehicles). The terminal also has 2 standoff (non aerobridge) gates. Cathay Pacific, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas (which includes two lounges in Terminal 2, a First lounge and a Business lounge/Qantas Club), Singapore Airlines, Air New Zealand/ United Airlines and Emirates Airline all operate airline lounges in the terminal. The international terminal, completed in 1996, contains works by noted Australian Indigenous artists including Daisy Jugadai Napaltjarri and Gloria Petyarre. A $330 million expansion programme for Terminal 2 was announced in 2007. The objectives of this project include new lounges and retail facilities, a new satellite terminal, increased luggage capacity and a redesign of customs and security areas. A new satellite terminal features floor-to-ceiling windows offers views of the North-South runway. The new concourse includes three double-decker aerobridges, each accommodating an A380 aircraft or two smaller aircraft and one single aerobridge. The baggage handling capacity will be increased, and two new baggage carousels will cater to increased A380 traffic. Work commenced in November 2007 and will be completed in 2011. Although described as a satellite terminal, the terminal building is connected by an above-ground corridor to Terminal 2. Departures take place on the lower deck (similar to the A380 boarding lounges currently in use at Gates 9 and 11), with arrivals streamed on to the first floor to connect with the current first floor arrivals deck. Gates 12, 14 & 16 are now accepting passengers, whilst gates 18 & 20 will open in November 2010.

Terminal 3
Terminal 3 - Originally the Ansett Australia terminal is now owned by Melbourne Airport. Terminal 3 is home to Virgin Blue and Regional Express. It currently has eleven parking bays served by single aerobridges and eight parking bays not equipped with aerobridges. An expansion of the terminal was approved in 1989 and completed in 1991 when a second pier was added by Ansett to the south for use by smaller regional airline Kendell. The terminal was used exclusively by the Ansett Group for all its domestic activities until its collapse in 2001. It was intended to be used by the "New" Ansett, under ownership of Tesna " however, following the Tesna group's withdrawal of the purchase of Ansett in 2002, the terminal was sold back to Melbourne Airport by Ansett's administrators. as a result, Melbourne Airport undertook a major renovation and facelift of the terminal, following which Virgin Blue moved in from what was then called Domestic Express (now Terminal 4), and has since began operating The Lounge in the terminal, using the former Ansett Australia Golden Wing Lounge area. Regional Express also operate an airline lounge in the terminal.

Terminal 4
Terminal 4"originally called the Domestic Express or South Terminal"is dedicated to budget airlines and is the first facility of its kind at a conventional airport in Australia. Originally constructed for Virgin Blue and Impulse Airlines. Virgin Blue eventually moved into Terminal 3 following the demise of Ansett. A $5 million refit began in June 2007 along the lines of the budget terminal model at Singapore Changi Airport and Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Lower landing and airport handling fees are charged to airlines due to the basic facilities, lack of aerobridges, and fewer amenities and retail outlets compared to a conventional terminal. However, the terminal is located next to the main terminal building, unlike in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. The terminal was rebuilt by Tiger Airways Australia, who have used it as their main hub since they operated their first domestic flight on 23 November 2007. Jetstar Airways confirmed its involvement in discussions with Melbourne Airport regarding the expansion of terminal facilities to accommodate for the growth of domestic low-cost services. The proposed expansion of Terminal 4 includes infrastructure to accommodate Tiger Airways Australia and Jetstar Airways flights. These plans are currently in development, and the expansion of Terminal 4 would include the relocation of the current freight centre. If approved, the development is expected to cost hundreds of millions of dollars and take five years to complete.

Southern Freighter Apron
The Southern Freighter Apron has five dedicated freighter parking positions which host 21 dedicated freighter operations a week. In August 1997, the fifth freighter parking position and the apron was extended.

Airlines and destinations

  • ^1 These flights may make an intermediate stop en route to their listed final destination; however the airlines have no traffic rights to carry passengers solely between Melbourne and the intermediate Australian stop.


Cargo services
The following airlines operate cargo-only services from Melbourne Airport’s Southern Freighter Apron:

Other facilities
Melbourne Airport is served by four hotels. A Hilton is located 100 metres (330 ft) from Terminal 2 atop the multi-level carpark. Work commenced on the six-story 280 room hotel in January 1999, which was completed in mid-2000. Holiday Inn has an outlet located 400 metres (1,300 ft) from the terminal precinct. Motel Formule 1 offers lodgings located 600 metres (2,000 ft) from the terminals. Mantra Tullamarine opened in 2009, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the terminal precinct.

Operations
The T2 sign Melbourne is the second busiest airport in Australia. The airport is curfew-free and operates 24 hours a day, although between 2 am and 4 am, freight aircraft are more prevalent than passenger flights. In 2004, the environmental management systems were accredited ISO 14001, the world's best practice standard, making it the first airport in Australia to receive such accreditation. Melbourne Airport terminal precinct

Airbus A380
Construction works have been undertaken to prepare the airport for the arrival of the double-decker Airbus A380. The A380 has been purchased by several airlines using the airport, namely Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Thai Airways, Vietnam Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Singapore Airlines, Korean Air, Etihad Airways and Emirates. The improvements included the construction of dual airbridges (Gates 9 and 11) with the ability to board both decks simultaneously to reduce turnaround times, the widening of the North-South runway and remote stands and taxiways by 15 metres (49 ft), the extension of the international terminal building by 20 metres (66 ft) to include new penthouse airline lounges, and the construction of an additional baggage carousel in the arrivals hall. As a result the airport was the first in Australia to be capable of handling the A380. The A380 made its first test flight into the airport on 14 November 2005. On 15 May 2008 the A380 made its first passenger flight into the airport when a Singapore Airlines Sydney-bound flight was diverted from Sydney Airport because of fog. Beginning 20 October 2008, Qantas was the first airline to operate the A380 from the airport, flying nonstop to Los Angeles International Airport twice a week. This was the inaugural route for the Qantas A380. Qantas was followed by Singapore Airlines, who now opearates the A380 daily to Singapore Changi Airport. Singapore Airlines services began on 29 September 2009. Emirates intend to fly the A380 to Dubai International Airport in 2011. The A380at the airport for the first time as part of the testing programme

Runways
Melbourne Airport has two intersecting runways: a 3,657 metres (11,998 ft) North-South runway and a 2,286 metres (7,500 ft) East-West runway. Due to increasing traffic, several runway expansions are planned, including an 843 metres (2,766 ft) extension of the North-South runway to lengthen it to 4,500 metres (14,800 ft), and a 1,214 metres (3,983 ft) extension of the East-West runway to a total of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft). Two new runways are also planned: a 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) runway parallel to the current North-South runway and a 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) runway south of the current East-West runway. Traffic movement is expected to reach 248,000 per annum by 2017, necessitating a third runway. On 5 June 2008, it was announced that the airport intends to install a Category III landing system, allowing planes to land in low visibility conditions, such as fog, by the end of 2008. This system will be the first of its kind in Australia. Aerial shot of the airport showing runway, taxiway and terminal layout

Awards and accolades
Melbourne Airport has received numerous awards. The International Air Transport Association ranked Melbourne among the top five airports in the world in 1997 and 1998 and, in 2003, presented it with the Eagle Award. The Australian Airport Association named it the Airport of the Year in 1999, while Business Traveller Magazine and Airports Council International have ranked Melbourne in the top ten every year from 1996 to 2000 and in the top five for airports that handle between 15 and 25 million passengers. Melbourne is classified as a four-star airport by Skytrax. The airport has received recognition in other areas. It has won national and state tourism awards, and Singapore Airlines presented the airport with the Service Partner Award and Premier Business Partner Award in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In 2006, the airport won the Australian Construction Achievement Award for the runway widening project, dubbed "the most outstanding example of construction excellence for 2006".

Melbourne Centre
Main article: Melbourne Centre In addition to the onsite control tower, the airport is home to Melbourne Centre, an air traffic control facility that is responsible for the separation of aircraft in Australia's busiest Flight Information Region, Melbourne FIR. Melbourne FIR monitors airspace over Victoria, Tasmania, southern New South Wales, most of South Australia, the southern half of Western Australia and airspace over the Indian and Southern Ocean. In total, the centre controls 6% of the world's airspace. The airport is also the home of the Canberra Approach and Melbourne Approach facilities, which provide control services to aircraft arriving and departing at those airports.

Traffic and statistics
Melbourne Airport recorded more than 26.3 million passengers in 2009-10. 5.54 million of those were international, with the remaining 20.63 million being domestic. There were 195,900 aircraft movements, the vast majority being domestic passenger services. In the long term, the compounded average annual growth rate (CAAGR) for passenger movements is between 3.3% and 4.3%. For aircraft movements, the CAAGR is between 1.8% and 2.6%. This firmly entrenches Melbourne as Australia's second busiest airport, ahead of Brisbane and behind Sydney. The following table lists passenger statistics for Melbourne Airport. Forecast statistics are in dark grey.
Annual passenger statistics for Melbourne Airport
Busiest international freight routes out of Melbourne Airport (FY 2009)

Busiest international passenger routes out of Melbourne Airport (YE June 2010) Airlines Destinations Terminal Air China Beijing-Capital, Shanghai-Pudong 2 Air Mauritius Mauritius 2 Air New Zealand Auckland, Christchurch, Wellington Seasonal: Dunedin, Queenstown 2 Air Pacific Nadi 2 Air Vanuatu Port Vila 2 AirAsia X Kuala Lumpur 2 Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 1 2 China Eastern Airlines (Operated by Shanghai Airlines) Shanghai-Pudong 2 China Southern Airlines Guangzhou 2 Emirates Auckland, Dubai, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore 2 Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 2 Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta 2 Jetstar Airways Adelaide, Brisbane, Ballina, Cairns, Darwin, Gold Coast, Hamilton Island, Hobart, Launceston, Newcastle, Perth, Sunshine Coast, Sydney, Townsville 1 Jetstar Airways Auckland, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Christchurch, Denpasar/Bali, Honolulu, Queenstown, Singapore, Sydney 2 Korean Air Seoul-Incheon 2 Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur 2 Norfolk Air operated by Our Airline Norfolk Island 2 Philippine Airlines Manila 1 2 Qantas Adelaide, Alice Springs, Brisbane, Broome, Cairns, Canberra, Darwin , Hobart, Karratha, Perth, Port Hedland, Sydney 1 Qantas Auckland, Hong Kong, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Singapore Seasonal: Queenstown 2 Qantas operated by Jetconnect Auckland, Wellington 2 Qantas operated by QantasLink Adelaide, Canberra, Devonport, Launceston, Mildura 1 Qatar Airways Doha 2 Regional Express Albury, Burnie, Griffith, King Island, Merimbula, Mildura, Mount Gambier, Wagga Wagga 3 Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 2 Singapore Airlines Singapore 2 Skywest Airlines Kalgoorlie, Perth 3 Strategic Airlines Phuket 2 Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 2 Tiger Airways Australia Adelaide, Alice Springs, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Gold Coast, Hobart, Mackay, Perth, Rockhampton, Sunshine Coast, Sydney 4 United Airlines Los Angeles 1 2 Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City 2 Virgin Blue Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Gold Coast, Hobart, Launceston, Mildura, Newcastle, Perth, Sunshine Coast, Sydney 3 Virgin Blue operated by Pacific Blue Auckland, Christchurch, Denpasar/Bali, Nadi 2 Virgin Blue operated by V Australia Los Angeles 2 Airlines Destinations Australian air Express Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Gold Coast, Hobart, Launceston, Perth, Sydney, Townsville Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong, Sydney MASkargo Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Sydney Qantas Freight Auckland Qantas Freight operated by Atlas Air Auckland, Chicago-O'Hare, Hong Kong, Honolulu, New York-JFK Singapore Airlines Cargo Adelaide, Auckland, Singapore Toll Priority Brisbane, Perth, Sydney Toll Priority operated by Jetcraft Aviation Adelaide, Brisbane, Sydney
Year Passenger movements (millions) Aircraft movements (thousands) 1997”“98 14.20 154.13 1998”“99 14.58 156.80 1999”“00 15.57 164.67 2000”“01 17.24 187.36 2001”“02 16.48 157.60 2002”“03 16.92 157.92 2003”“04 19.16 165.26 2004”“05 20.78 180.51 2005”“06 21.43 179.51 2006”“07 22.50 180.16 2007”“08 24.26 193.83 2008”“09 24.77 195.02 2009”“10 26.29 195.90 2012”“13 27.4”“29.8 203.0”“217.0 2017”“18 32.5”“37.1 223.9”“247.4 2022”“23 38.5”“45.8 243.9”“281.7 2027”“28 43.9”“54.9 263.2”“316.5
Rank Airport Freight tonnes handled % Change 1 Singapore Changi Airport 50,751.8 3.3 2 Hong Kong International Airport 36,450.4 4.7 3 Auckland Airport 24,105.8 22.8 4 Kuala Lumpur International Airport 19,712.7 6.4 5 Suvarnabhumi Airport 17,237.8 4.3 6 Dubai International Airport 13,692.6 4.1 7 Los Angeles International Airport 5,663.1 15.8 8 O'Hare International Airport 3,189.5 52.5 9 Shanghai Pudong International Airport 2,902.5 22.3 10 Ngurah Rai International Airport 2,456.0 18.9
Rank Airport Passengers handled % Change 1 Singapore Changi Airport 911,714 6.0 2 Auckland Airport 755,148 1.3 3 Kuala Lumpur International Airport 608,525 50.9 4 Hong Kong International Airport 501,856 0.5 5 Suvarnabhumi Airport 378,616 4.0 6 Los Angeles International Airport 333,535 13.6 7 Dubai International Airport 338,404 2.6 8

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