Lange Jaap
Lange Jaap ("Long John"), also known as Kijkduin Light or Den Helder Light, is an active lighthouse near fort Kijkduin in Huisduinen, municipality of Den Helder, province of North Holland, the Netherlands. At a height of 182 feet (55 m) it is one of the tallest "traditional lighthouse" in the world. For almost one hundred years, from 1878 to 1974, it was the tallest lighthouse in the Netherlands, until the construction of Maasvlakte Light. According to The Lighthouse Directory it is the tallest non-skeletal cast iron lighthouse in the world, and that may be the case if the height is as specified in that source (63.5 metres (208 ft)). However, if the height is 55.5 metres (182 ft) as stated by other sources it is the second tallest, Cikoneng Light being 190 feet (58 m). The site is open and accessible. However, due to safety concerns the tower is closed to the public, since 1998.

History
The predecessor of this tower stood Fort Kijkduin that a few hundred meters south of the current tower. The first setting was a simple coal fire which stood there since 1814. In 1822 the construction of the first tower was completed and it was first lit on 29 October 1822. The tower was 22 metres (72 ft) tall, 6 floor brick tower. The light consisted of 26 Argand lamps with parabolic reflectors. It was visible up to 6 nautical miles (11 km; 6.9 mi). Cracks in the building foundation were repaired twice, in 1826 and 1827. In 1853 the light is replaced by an Argand lamp lens system with fixed Fresnel lens. The shell of the former lantern is displayed out of doors in the royal dockyard of Willemsoord in Den Helder. The construction of the lighthouse started on 1877 and ended on 1878, with a formal first lighting on 1 April 1878. The first lens system was a stationary lens with Argand lamps from the old tower. In 1903 it was replaced with a Barbier and F. B. rotational system, with Mercury bearings. It used incandescent kerosene and had an intensity of 1,200,000 cd. The characteristic was 2 flashes every 10s and was visible for "20 English miles". In 1912 an improved pharoline incandescent light was installed. In 1924 the light was electrified in 1924 and a Brandaris 80V 50A lamp was fitted. This light system was destroyed in 1940, during World War II. An emergency light was installed in 1945, with an intensity of 62,000 cd. On September 2, 1949 the current 920mm 1st order Fresnel lens was installed, with the current characteristic. In 1988 the site was given a Rijksmonument status. In 1998 the lighthouse was closed to the public due to cracks on the cast iron floors. Although it was refurbished in 1999 and a new coat of paint was applied, as of 2002 it is unlikely that the tower will be reopened, especially due to harder safety regulation since the Volendam café disaster and the formation of the Dutch Safety Board.

Construction
The 17 floor 284 step tower was designed by Quirinus Harder and prefabricated by Penn & Bauduin in Dordrecht. It was constructed from 1,088 iron plate and 21,446 nuts and bolts.

Dutch Rijksmonument 335626