Lake Pontchartrain Causeway
The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, or the Causeway , consists of two parallel bridges crossing Lake Pontchartrain in southern Louisiana, United States. The longer of the two bridges is the seventh-longest in the world, measuring 23.87 miles (38.42 km) long. The Qingdao Haiwan Bridge in China's Shandong Province, at 26.4 miles (42.49 km), is the longest bridge over water. The Bang Na Expressway, a viaduct in Bangkok, at 54 kilometres (33.55 mi), is excluded from most lists of longest bridges because it crosses water for only a minimal portion of its length. The newly opened Weinan Weihe Grand Bridge is longer but also classed as a viaduct. The bridges are supported by 9,500 concrete pilings. The two bridges feature bascule spans over the navigation channel 8 miles (13 km) south of the north shore. The southern terminus of the Causeway is in Metairie, Louisiana, a suburb of New Orleans. The northern terminus is at Mandeville, Louisiana.

History
The idea of a bridge spanning Lake Pontchartrain dates back to the early 19th Century and Bernard de Marigny, the founder of Mandeville. He started a ferry service that continued to operate into the mid 1930s. In the 1920s, a proposal called for the creation of artificial islands that would then be linked by a series of bridges. The financing for this plan would come from selling homesites on the islands. The modern Causeway started to take form in 1948 when the Louisiana Legislature created what is now the Causeway Commission. The Louisiana Bridge Company was formed to construct the bridge, who in turn appointed James E. Walters, Sr to direct the project. The original Causeway was a two-lane span, measuring 23.86 miles (38.40 km) in length, that opened in 1956 at a cost of $30.7 million. A parallel two-lane span, 1/100th of a mile (15 m) longer than the original, opened on May 10, 1969 at a cost of $26 million. The Causeway has always been a toll bridge. Until 1999, tolls were collected from traffic going in each direction. To alleviate congestion on the south shore, toll collections were eliminated on the northbound span. The standard tolls for cars changed from $1.50 in each direction to a $3.00 toll collected on the North Shore for southbound traffic only. The opening of the Causeway boosted the fortunes of small North Shore communities by reducing drive time into New Orleans by up to 50 minutes, bringing the North Shore into the New Orleans metropolitan area. Prior to the Causeway, residents of St. Tammany Parish used either the Maestri Bridge on U.S. Route 11 or the Rigolets Bridge on U.S. Route 90, both near Slidell, Louisiana or on the west side via U.S. Route 51 through Manchac, Louisiana. After Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005, videos collected showed damage to the bridge, but the damage was mostly on the unused turnaround on the older southbound span; the structural foundations remained intact. The Causeways have never sustained major damage of any sort due to hurricanes and other natural occurrences, a rarity in the causeway community. The existing fiber optic cable plant was blown out of the tray but remained intact per optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) analysis. With the I-10 Twin Span Bridge severely damaged, the Causeway was used as a major route for recovery teams staying in highlands to the North to get into New Orleans. The Causeway reopened first to emergency traffic and then to the general public, with tolls suspended, on September 19. Tolls were reinstated by mid-October. The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway is one of six highway spans in Louisiana that have a total length of 5 miles (8.0 km) or more. The others are, in order from longest to shortest, the Manchac Swamp bridge on I-55, the Atchafalaya Basin Bridge on I-10, the Bonnet Carré Spillway bridge on I-10, the Chacahoula Swamp Bridge on U.S. 90, the Lake Pontchartrain Twin Spans on I-10, and the LaBranche Wetlands Bridge on I-310. The Maestri Bridge comes close, but runs short two tenths of a mile at roughly 4.8 miles (7.7 km) in total length. In a few years the Leeville- Port Fourchon Bridge on Louisiana Highway 1 at over 17 miles (27 km) in total length will join this list. Louisiana is also home to the Norfolk Southern Lake Pontchartrain Bridge, which at 5.8 miles (9.3 km) is one of the longest railway bridges in the United States. The southern end of the Manchac Swamp bridge (on the western edge of Lake Pontchartrain) is the western end of the Bonnet Carré Spillway bridge (on the southwestern edge of Lake Pontchartrain) and the northern end of the LaBranche Wetlands (Destrehan Swamp) bridge is the eastern end of the Bonnet Carré Spillway bridge, so these three bridges by name are in fact one contiguous bridge. The total driving distance on continuous elevated roadway is over 38 miles (61 km). =

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