Hospital of St Cross
For the hospital in Warwickshire; see Hospital of St. Cross, Rugby The Hospital of St Cross and Almshouse of Noble Poverty is a medieval almshouse in Winchester, England, founded between 1133 and 1136. It is the oldest charitable institution in the United Kingdom. The founder was Henry de Blois, Bishop of Winchester, grandson of William the Conqueror, half brother to King Stephen of England. Not only is it the oldest but is also the largest medieval almshouse in Britain; it is built on the scale of an Oxford or Cambridge college, but is older than any of the colleges at the universities. It has been described as "England's oldest and most perfect almshouse" . Most of the buildings and grounds are open to the public at certain times .

Charitable Work
The Hospital still provides accommodation for a total of 25 elderly men known as "The Brothers" under the care of "The Master"; they belong to either of two charitable foundations. Those belonging to the Foundation of the Hospital of St Cross (founded in about 1132) wear black robes with a silver cross and trencher hats. Those belonging to the Order of Noble Poverty (founded in 1445) wear claret red robes and trencher hats. They are sometimes called the "Black Brothers" and the "Red Brothers" . Brothers must be single, widowed or divorced, over 60 years of age and preference is given to those in most need. They are expected to wear their gowns and attend daily morning prayers in the Church . The Hospital continues an ancient tradition in the Wayfarer's Dole which consists of a small horn cup of ale and a piece of bread. The dole was started by a Cluniac monk and can be obtained by anyone who asks at the Porter's Lodge .

The building is constructed of stone and surrounds two quadrangles. The smaller Outer Quadrangle to the north consists of: the outer gate (16th century); brewhouse (14th century); from the 15th century, the guest wing, kitchen which had to produce food for the Master, 25 Brethren, 100 poor men and the servants, the porter's lodge and the three story Beaufort Tower c 1450, this has three niches above the arch one of which still contains the weathered statue of Cardinal Beaufort who was Bishop of Winchester, the tower and spaces above the porter's lodge used to be the Master of the almshouse lodging. Passing beneath the tower the Inner Quadrangle is reached, the north range includes the Brethren's Hall (which had to be large enough for the Brethren & 100 poor men), of the 14th century, entered via a flight of steps in a stone porch, there is a timber screen with gallery above, within there is also a splendid timber roof, arch braced, there is a central hearth and a dais where the Master would have dined, with the Brethren in the main part of the hall, there is a wooden staircase leading to the Master's rooms in the south east corner. The main set of two storied lodgings are on the north west & west sides of the quadrangle, these house the 25 inmates, they are notable for the tall regularly spaced chimneys and doorways each leading to four sets of apartments. There used to be a corresponding range on the south side joined to the church, but this was demolished in the 1760s. The east range of timber framing and brick with stone windows, is a 16th century long gallery (for the use of the Master) raised on a cloister open to the quadrangle, this leads to an entrance to the church. The 12th and 13th century church in the south east corner is more like a miniature cathedral than a typical almshouse chapel. The building is stone vaulted throughout, with transepts and a central tower. The walls are over a metre in thickness, made from stone from Caen, Dorset the Isle of Wight and local flint, the roof is lead. The building is in transitional Norman/ Gothic style. Started in 1135, the chancel was the first part built two bays deep with aisles. This is typically Norman with round headed windows and much chevron ornament. But the main arches in the arcade and beneath the central tower are slightly pointed in the Gothic manner. The three bay aisled nave and transepts continue the style. Between 1383 and 1385 a large tracery window was inserted in the west front and the clerestory windows in the nave were enlarged and a north porch added. Several medieval encaustic tiles survive on the floor. There are also traces of medieval wall paintings. The stained glass is mainly 19th century.

The Hospital was used in the filming of The Day of the Triffids. It was also featured on Songs of Praise

Building Activity

  • Dimitar Chikakchiev
    Dimitar Chikakchiev updated
    about 6 years ago via
  • Peter Todd
    Peter Todd commented
    I'm pretty sure this was built before 2004.
    about 6 years ago via Mobile