Hospital for Sick Children
The Hospital for Sick Children, also known as SickKids, is a children's hospital located on University Avenue in the Discovery District of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is a teaching hospital affiliated with the University of Toronto, and is the world's second-largest hospital-based paediatric research facility following Children's Hospital Boston. Founded in 1875, the hospital was inspired by the example of Great Ormond Street Hospital in London, England.

Medical treatments at SickKids are covered by publicly funded health insurance, as is the case in all Canadian hospitals. Philanthropy is a critical source of funding for SickKids that is separate and distinct from government and granting agencies. In 2006/07, financial support from SickKids Foundation to the hospital totalled $72.1 million. The support went towards infrastructure and support for physicians, researchers and scientists who compete for national and international research grants. Next to government, SickKids Foundation is the largest funding agency in child health research, education and care in Canada. The Foundation maintains a fund, called the Herbie Fund, for patients not covered by Canadian health insurance. The fund was established in 1979 to provide for the treatment of a seven month old patient from Brooklyn, New York named Herbie Quiñones.

During the spring of 1875 a group of Toronto women led by Elizabeth McMaster rented an 11-room house for $320 a year. They set up six iron cots and "declared open a hospital 'for the admission and treatment of all sick children.'" Their first patient, a scalding victim named Maggie, came in on April 3. Forty-four patients were admitted to the Hospital in its first year of operation and sixty-seven others were treated in outpatient clinics. In 1876 the hospital moved to larger facilities. In 1891 the hospital moved from rented premises to a building constructed for it at College and Elizabeth streets where it would remain for sixty years. This old building, known as the Victoria Hospital for Sick Children is now the Toronto area headquarters of Canadian Blood Services. In 1951 the hospital moved to its present University Avenue location, on the grounds where Canadian star Mary Pickford's childhood home once stood. The hospital underwent its last major expansion in 1993 with the construction of a glass-roofed atrium on the east side of the main building.

Infant deaths
In 1981, tests indicated that as many as 43 babies in the cardiac ward were poisoned by deliberate administration of massive overdoses of the drug digoxin. This prompted an investigation by the Toronto police. Susan Nelles, a nurse scheduled on duty at the time of several of the deaths, was arrested and charged with first degree murder of four of the babies and she was on duty when 23 suspicious deaths occurred. During the same time frame Nelles was alleged to have murdered four babies, a total of 24 babies had died on the cardiac ward in suspiciously similar circumstances, but when she was not on duty. The digoxin deaths stopped after Nelles was arrested, but stricter policies on administering drugs in the ward were also put in place. Charges against Nelles were thrown out at a preliminary hearing after it was revealed that she was not on duty when one of the four babies died. A Royal Commission, the Grange Inquiry, on the deaths concluded at least eight infants had been murdered and suspicion fell on another nurse. As of 2005, only Nelles had been charged with a crime involving the baby deaths. A book on the case, Death Shift: The Digoxin Murders at Sick Kids was written by Ted Bessland.

Contributions to medicine
The hospital was an early leader in the fields of food safety and nutrition. In 1908 a Pasteurization facility for milk was established at the hospital. Researchers at the hospital invented the infant cereal, Pablum. The research that led to the discovery of Insulin took place nearby at the University of Toronto and was soon applied at the hospital. Doctor Frederick Banting, one of the researchers, had served his internship at SickKids and went on to become an attending physician there. In 1989, a team of researchers at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto discovered the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis. In 1991, Dr Arlette Lefebvre founded Ability Online, an online community for ill and disabled children and their families.

Recent events
In 2004, doctors at SickKids helped save the life of 10-year-old Djamshid Popal from Afghanistan by treating his heart problem, after the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario diagnosed his illness and referred this patient. In 2004, SickKids implemented a document management software strategy to improve the storage, security and retrieval of their Electronic Patient Charts. The initiative is continuously updated and has helped to streamline processes at the point of care by providing physicians with quick computer access to complete Electronic Patient Charts. The referenced article is shared with the permission of Canadian Healthcare Technology . In 2010, researchers led by Dr. Andrew Redington, a cardiologist at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada have found that intermittently inflating the cuff on the arm of someone having a heart attack helps set off a response that lessens the heart damage caused by the attack . In late 2009, the hospital went under deep renovation in the emergency wards.

Building Activity

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