Hong Kong International AirportEdit profile
Hong Kong International Airport ( IATA: HKG, ICAO: VHHH) is the main airport in Hong Kong. It is colloquially known as Chek Lap Kok Airport (赤鱲角機場), because it was built on the island of Chek Lap Kok by land reclamation, and also to distinguish it from its predecessor, the closed Kai Tak Airport. The airport opened for commercial operations in 1998, replacing Kai Tak, and is an important regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and gateway for destinations in Mainland China (with over 40 destinations) and the rest of Asia. Despite a relatively short history, Hong Kong International Airport has won seven Skytrax World Airport Awards for customer satisfaction in just ten years. However, HKIA ranked second and third in 2009 and 2010 respectively for the Skytrax World Airport Awards, although it still remains as the best airport taking into account passenger numbers annually. HKIA also operates one of the world's largest passenger terminal buildings (the world's largest when opened in 1998) and operates twenty-four hours a day. The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong and is the primary hub for Cathay Pacific Airways, Dragonair, Hong Kong Express Airways, Hong Kong Airlines, and Air Hong Kong (cargo). It is a focus city for Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Vietnam Airlines to a lesser extent Qantas and Virgin Atlantic, all of which use Hong Kong as a stopover point for flights on the Kangaroo Route between Australasia and Europe. Both United Airlines and Air India use Hong Kong as a stopover point for flights respectively from the United States to Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City as well as from India to Osaka and Seoul. In the near future, Garuda Indonesia is considering making Hong Kong their transit hub for flights to Europe. Flights are operated by roughly 90 airlines to over 150 cities across the globe, and in 2009 it was the 13th busiest airport worldwide in terms of passenger throughput, registering 45,560,888. HKIA is also an important contributor to the Hong Kong economy, with 60,000 people employed at the airport. In 2009, it was the second busiest airport in the world in terms of cargo traffic, handling 3,384,765 tons of cargo.
Chek Lap Kok Airport was designed as a replacement for the former Hong Kong International Airport (commonly known as Kai Tak Airport) originally built in 1925. Located in the densely built-up Kowloon City District with a single runway extending into Kowloon Bay, Kai Tak had only limited room for expansion to cope with steadily increasing air traffic. By the 1990s, Kai Tak had become one of the world's busiest airports – it far exceeded its annual passenger and cargo design capacities, and one out of every three flights met delays, largely due to lack of space for aircraft, gates, and a second runway. In addition, noise mitigation measures restricted nighttime flights, as severe noise pollution (exceeding 105 dB(A) in Kowloon City) was estimated to adversely affect at least 340,000 people. A 1974 planning study by the Hong Kong Civil Aviation and Public Works department identified the small island of Chek Lap Kok, off Lantau Island, as a possible airport replacement site. Away from the congested city centre, flight paths would be routed over the South China Sea rather than populous urban areas, enabling efficient round-the-clock operation of multiple runways. Construction of the new airport, however, did not begin until 1991. The construction period was very rushed; specialists considered only a 10-20 year period was sufficient for this massive project. Another cause for this rush was due to the uncertain future of the airport construction after the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China. It was originally believed that Beijing preferred to keep everything basically intact and minimise financial commitments for big projects, therefore stopping all construction despite the need for the new airport. At last, the airport did not finish in time for the Handover. However, China gave an additional year's grace period to finish the project. It was finished just in time. Hong Kong International Airport was built on a large artificial island, formed by levelling Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau islands (3.02 km² and 0.08 km² respectively), and reclaiming 9.38 km² of the adjacent seabed. The 12.48 km² airport site added nearly 1% to Hong Kong's total surface area, connecting to the north side of Lantau Island near Tung Chung new town. Construction of the new airport was only part of the Airport Core Programme, which also involved construction of new road and rail links to the airport, with associated bridges and tunnels, and major land reclamation projects on both Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. The project is the most expensive airport project ever, according to Guinness World Records. Construction of the new airport was voted as one of the Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century at the ConExpo conference in 1999. With one of the world's largest airport terminals, the ability to withstand an intense typhoon was a major concern. The sides of the terminals, predominantly glass, were designed to break during high speed winds, relieving pressure and allowing the terminal to remain standing. Opened on 6 July 1998, a week later than the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport, it took six years and US$20 billion to build. On that day at 6:25 am, Cathay Pacific flight 889 was the first commercial flight to land at the airport, pipping the original CX292 from Rome which was the scheduled first arrival. The architects were Foster and Partners. However, on the first day of opening, the airport had already started to experience some technical difficulties. The flight information display system (FIDS) had suddenly shut down which caused long delays. Shortly afterwards, the cargo communication link with Kai Tak, where all the data was stored, went down. In the same period of time, someone had accidentally deleted a critical database for cargo services. This meant that cargo had to be manually stored. At one point, the airport had to turn away freight headed for and exported from Hong Kong (except food and medical supplies) while it sorted out the mess. HKIA simply could not keep up without an automated computer assisting. For three to five months after its opening, it suffered various severe organisational, mechanical, and technical problems that almost crippled the airport. Computer glitches were to blame for the crisis. Lau Kang-way, a Hong Kong politician, was quoted saying "This was meant to be a first-class project, but it has turned into a ninth-class airport and a disgrace. Our airport has become the laughing stock of the world. At one time, the government reopened the cargo terminal at Kai Tak Airport to handle freight traffic because of a breakdown at the new cargo terminal, named Super Terminal One (ST1) However, after six months the airport started to operate normally. Officially opened in June 2007, the second airport terminal, called T2, (check-in facility only) is linked with the MTR Airport Express on a new platform. The terminal also features a new shopping mall, SkyPlaza, providing a large variety of shops and restaurants, together with a few entertainment facilities. T2 also houses a 36-bay coach station for buses to and from mainland China and 56 airline check-in counters, as well as customs and immigration facilities. Besides T2, the SkyCity Nine Eagles Golf Course has been opened in 2007 whereas the second airport hotel, the Hong Kong SkyCity Marriott Hotel; and a permanent cross-boundary ferry terminal, the SkyPier, began operations in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Development around T2 also includes the AsiaWorld-Expo which has started operation in late 2005. A second passenger concourse, the North Satellite Concourse (NSC), opened in 2010. A study for the HKIA Master Plan 2030 is underway to examine whether and how infrastructures at HKIA - including airport access, terminal and apron facilities and a new runway - should be developed to support the economic growth of Hong Kong and the region. In June 2010, the Airport Authority unveiled plans to develope in stages the vast midfield site of the airport island. Stage 1 will involve the construction of a new 20 gate passenger concourse to be built in 2 phases (completion 2015 and 2020) with 11 gates in phase 1 growing to 20 gates in phase 2. Configuration of the new concourse is similar to those at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, London Heathrow Terminal 5 and Seoul Incheon airport. After stage 1 of midfield development is completed in 2020, there'll be sufficient lands remaining for further new concourses to be built as and when demand for them materialises.
The airport has a total of 70 boarding gates, with 63 jet bridge gates and seven virtual gates which are used as assembly points for passengers, who are then ferried to the aircraft by apron buses. Of the 63 jet bridges, five are capable of handling the Airbus A380. The Singapore Airlines A380 currently operates to Hong Kong and uses those gates.
Terminal 1 of the HKIA is currently the third largest airport passenger terminal building in the world (570,000 m²), after Dubai International Airport's Terminal 3 (1,500,000 m²) and Beijing Capital International Airport's Terminal 3 (986,000 m² ). At its opening, Terminal 1 was the largest airport passenger terminal building, with a total gross floor area of 550,000 m². It briefly conceded the status to Bangkok's Suvarnabhumi Airport (563,000 m²) when the latter opened on 15 September 2006, but reclaimed the title when the East Hall was expanded, bringing the total area to its current size (the East Hall expansion included a 39,000 m² expansion to SkyMart, a shopping mall). Terminal 1's title as the world's largest was surrendered to Beijing's airport's Terminal 3 on 29 February 2008.
Terminal 2, together with the Skyplaza, opened on 28 February 2007 along with the opening of the Airport Station's Platform 3. It is only a check-in and processing facility for departing passengers with no gates or arrival facilities (passengers are transported underground to gates at Terminal 1). So far a majority of low-cost carriers and some full-service carriers have relocated their check-in operations to T2. The SkyPlaza is situated within Terminal 2. Architecture firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designed Terminal 2 and the SkyPlaza.
North Satellite Concourse
In 2007, HKIA began the construction of a two-storey North Satellite Concourse (NSC) which opened in December 2009. This concourse was designed for narrow-body aircraft and is equipped with 10 jet bridges. The concourse will be able to serve more than five million passengers annually. There is a shuttle bus service between the NSC and Terminal 1 every four minutes.
Airlines and destinations
The view of the airport from the control tower The interior of the airport control tower The airport is operated by the Airport Authority Hong Kong, a statutory body wholly owned by the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The Civil Aviation Department (CAD) is responsible for the provision of air traffic control services, certification of Hong Kong registered aircraft, monitoring of airlines on their compliance with bilateral Air Services Agreements, and the regulation of general civil aviation activities. The airport has two parallel runways, both of Chek Lap Kok Airport Traditional Chinese 赤 鱲 角 機 場 Simplified Chinese 赤 鱲 角 机 场
Transliterations Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Chìliè Jiǎo Jīchǎng Cantonese - Jyutping cek3 laap6 gok3 gei1 coeng4 Airlines Destinations Terminal Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo 1 AirAsia Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Penang 2 Air Canada Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver 1 Air China Beijing-Capital, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dalian, Tianjin 1 Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 1 Air India Delhi, Osaka-Kansai, Seoul-Incheon 1 Air Mauritius Mauritius 1 Air New Zealand Auckland, London-Heathrow 1 Air Niugini Port Moresby 1 Air Pacific Nadi 1 Airphil Express Manila 2 All Nippon Airways Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 1 Asiana Airlines Seoul-Incheon 1 Bangkok Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Koh Samui 2 Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka 1 British Airways London-Heathrow 1 Cathay Pacific Airways Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bahrain, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Cairns, Cebu, Chennai, Colombo, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Dubai, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manila, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Domodedovo, Mumbai, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Penang, Perth, Riyadh, Rome-Fiumicino, San Francisco, Sapporo-Chitose, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Haneda , Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver 1 Cebu Pacific Cebu, Clark, Manila 1 China Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan 1 China Eastern Airlines Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Hefei, Jinan, Kunming, Nanchang, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shanghai-Hongqiao , Shanghai-Pudong, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Wenzhou, Wuxi, Xi'an 1 China Southern Airlines Beijing-Capital, Changchun, Changsha, Guangzhou, Guilin, Haikou, Harbin, Hohhot, Meixian, Nanning, Sanya, Shantou, Shenyang, Ürümqi, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yinchuan, Yiwu , Zhengzhou 1 Continental Airlines Newark 1 Continental Airlines operated by Continental Micronesia Guam 1 Delta Air Lines Detroit, Tokyo-Narita 1 Dragonair Bangalore, Beijing-Capital, Busan, Changsha, Chengdu, Chongqing, Dhaka, Fukuoka , Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Kaohsiung, Kathmandu, Kota Kinabalu, Kunming, Manila, Nanjing, Ningbo, Naha, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Qingdao, Sanya, Sendai , Shanghai-Hongqiao , Shanghai-Pudong, Taipei-Taoyuan, Wuhan, Xiamen 1 El Al Tel Aviv 1 Emirates Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Dubai 1 Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 1 EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan 1 Finnair Helsinki 1 Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Surabaya 1 Hong Kong Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Guilin, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Naha, Tokyo-Narita , Sanya, Shanghai-Pudong 2 Hong Kong Express Airways Beijing-Capital, Changsha, Denpasar/Bali, Guiyang, Haikou, Hangzhou, Harbin, Laoag, Manila, Ningbo, Naha, Sapporo-Chitose, Shantou,Kunming 2 Japan Airlines Osaka-Kansai , Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 1 Jeju Air Seoul-Incheon 1 Jet Airways Delhi, Mumbai 2 Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore 2 Kenya Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Nairobi 1 Kingfisher Airlines Delhi, Mumbai 2 KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Amsterdam 1 Korean Air Busan, Cheongju, Seoul-Incheon 1 Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich 1 Malaysia Airlines Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching 1 Mandala Airlines Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta 2 Mandarin Airlines Kaohsiung, Taichung 1 Nepal Airlines Kathmandu 1 Orient Thai Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 1 Pakistan International Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Islamabad, Lahore 1 Philippine Airlines Manila 2 Qantas Brisbane, London-Heathrow, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney 1 Qatar Airways Doha 1 Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 1 Royal Jordanian Amman-Queen Alia, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 2 Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam , Jeddah, Riyadh 1 Shanghai Airlines Shanghai-Hongqiao , Shanghai-Pudong, Xuzhou 1 Shenzhen Airlines Jinjiang 2 Sichuan Airlines Chengdu, Chongqing, Yichang 1 Singapore Airlines San Francisco, Singapore 1 South African Airways Johannesburg 2 SriLankan Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Colombo 1 Swiss International Air Lines Zürich 1 Thai AirAsia Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Phuket 2 Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Phuket, Seoul-Incheon 2 Tiger Airways Singapore 2 Transaero Airlines Moscow-Domodedovo 1 Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk 1 United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Ho Chi Minh City, San Francisco, Singapore 1 Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City 1 Virgin Atlantic Airways London-Heathrow, Sydney 1 Xiamen Airlines Fuzhou, Wuyishan, Xiamen 1 Airlines Destinations ACT Airlines Cebu, Dhaka, Lahore, Port Moresby, Taipei-Taoyuan Aeroflot-Cargo Almaty, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Karaganda, Khabarovsk, Novosibirsk Aerologic Leipzig-Halle, Sharjah AirBridgeCargo Airlines Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Krasnojarsk, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, St Petersburg Air Cargo Germany Hahn, Karaganda Air China Cargo Beijing-Capital, Tianjin Air France Cargo Bahrain, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Zaragoza Air Hong Kong Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Manila, Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita Air Mauritius Mauritius-Plaisance ANA Cargo Nagoya-Centrair, Okinawa, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita Asiana Cargo Seoul-Incheon Atlas Air Adana Incirlik, Ault Field, Chicago-O'Hare, Fairfield, Kagoshima, Kuwait, Melbourne, Miami, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Sapporo-Chitose, Seoul-Incheon, Sydney British Airways World Cargo Chennai, Cologne/Bonn, Delhi, London-Stansted, Mumbai, Munich Cargolux Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Amman, Baku, Barcelona, Beirut, Budapest, Chicago-O'Hare, Dammam, Doha, Helsinki, Karaganda, Komatsu, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Melbourne Cargolux Italia Almaty, Dubai, Milan-Malpensa Cargoitalia Almaty, Ho Chi Minh City, Milan-Malpensa Cathay Pacific Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Brussels, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Dhaka, Dubai, Frankfurt, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Houston-Intercontinental, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manchester, Melbourne, Miami, Milan-Malpensa, Mumbai, Munich, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Penang, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Singapore, Stockholm-Arlanda, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Toronto-Pearson, Tokyo-Narita, Vancouver China Cargo Airlines Qingdao, Shanghai-Pudong China Airlines Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan Deccan 360 Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata Donghai Airlines Chengdu, Shenzhen, Wuhan Dragonair Cargo Chengdu, Manchester, Osaka-Kansai, Shanghai-Pudong, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tehran-Mehrabad, Xiamen El Al Cargo Almaty, Seoul-Incheon, Tel Aviv Emirates SkyCargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chennai, Dubai EVA Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan Evergreen International Airlines Bagram, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK FedEx Express Almaty, Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare, Cologne/Bonn, Dallas-Fort Worth Apt, Delhi, Indianapolis, London-Stansted, Memphis, New York-JFK, Newark, Oakland, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Seoul-Incheon, San Francisco, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita Finnair Cargo Helsinki Grandstar Cargo Tianjin Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Hangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Xiamen, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi,Delhi(begins 21 August),Qingdao(begins 3 August) JAL Cargo Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita Jade Cargo International Vienna Jett8 Airlines Cargo Singapore Kalitta Air Abu Dhabi, Anchorage, Bahrain, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chicago-O'Hare, Columbus, Dubai, Frankfurt, Guam, Honolulu, Khabarovsk, New York-JFK KLM Cargo Almaty, Amsterdam Korean Air Cargo Seoul-Incheon Lufthansa Cargo Almaty, Bahrain, Chennai, Frankfurt, Hanoi, Leipzig/Halle, Mumbai, Sharjah, Tashkent Mandarin Airlines Kaohsiung MASkargo Kuala Lumpur, Penang Martinair Cargo Amsterdam, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chennai , Sharjah Nippon Cargo Airlines Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita Orient Thai Cargo Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi Philippine Airlines Cargo Manila Polar Air Cargo Anchorage, Campinas-Viracopos, Chicago-O'Hare, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, Seoul-Incheon, Wilmington Qantas Freight Geelong, Sydney Saudi Arabian Airlines Cargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Dammam, Jeddah, Lahore, Riyadh Shanghai Airlines Cargo Shanghai-Pudong Singapore Airlines Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Don Miguel, Los Angeles, Sharjah, Singapore, Sydney Southern Air Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare, Maastricht, Sharjah, Seoul-Incheon Star Airlines Almaty, Bishkek, Skopje, Sharjah Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi,Frankfurt, Amsterdam Thai Global Airline Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi TNT Airways Liège Transmile Air Services Anchorage, Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Riverside, Subang Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Cebu, Clark ULS Cargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Manila, Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita UPS Airlines Anchorage, Clark, Cologne/Bonn, Dubai, Honolulu, Louisville, Mumbai, Ontario, Osaka-Kansai, Philadelphia, Sapporo-Chitose, Seoul-Incheon, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Wilmington World Airways Anchorage, Seoul-Incheon Yangtze River Express Hangzhou, Qingdao Operations and Statistics Passenger movements 1998 28,631,000 2004 37,142,000 1999 30,394,000 2005 40,740,000 2000 33,374,000 2006 44,443,000 2001 33,065,000 2007 47,783,000 2002 34,313,000 2008 48,582,000 2003 27,433,000 2009 45,499,604 Airfreight movements in tonnes 1998 1,628,700 2004 3,093,900 1999 1,974,300 2005 3,402,000 2000 2,240,600 2006 3,580,000 2001 2,074,300 2007 3,742,000 2002 1,637,797 2008 3,627,000 2003 2,642,100 2009 3,440,581 Aircraft movements 1998 163,200 2004 237,300 1999 167,400 2005 263,500 2000 181,900 2006 280,000 2001 196,800 2007 295,580 2002 206,700 2008 301,000 2003 187,500 2009 279,505 Capacity Passenger (current) 50,000,000 Passenger (ultimate) 87,000,000 Cargo (current) 3m tonnes Cargo (ultimate) 9m tonnes Apron (current) 96 Number of destinations International (air) 154 International (water) 6