Gothenburg CathedralEdit profile
The Gothenburg Cathedral (Swedish: Gustavi domkyrka / Göteborgs domkyrka) is a cathedral in Gothenburg, Sweden. The cathedral is the seat of the bishop in the Church of Sweden diocese of Gothenburg.The original church
Before the first cathedral was inaugurated in 1633, the temporary Gothenburg stave church (Swedish: Brädekyrkan) had stood on the property for no more than about 12 years. It had been one of the first buildings in the city and the first church in the current Gothenburg, which is the third city founded at the mouth of the Göta River and the second to have been named Gothenburg.The first cathedral
When a new church was to be built on the site, King Gustavus Adolphus decreed in 1627 a tax, the proceeds of which would be used for church construction. The initial demand was for a barrel (just over 125 litres) of wheat, oats, barley or rye from each church-owned property (kyrkohemman) in Västergötland for a three-year period. In a letter to Gothenburg's town council (13 December 1629) the impost was continued for a further three years.
By 1633, the stave church had been torn down to make way for the new church building, although its separate tower remained in use as a guard tower.
Church construction was led by master mason Lars Nilsson. The foundation stone for the new church was laid by Gothenburg's justitiepresident (judge) Nils Börjesson Drakenberg, on 19 June 1626, and in 1633 the new main building was complete. During the construction period and for some time subsequently, the church was called stora kyrkan (the "great church").
On August 10–11 of the same year, superintendent Andreas Prytz consecrated the church with the two sermons Om kyrkors rätta bruk ("The right use of churches") and Om kyrkors invigning ("The consecration of churches"). The inauguration has been commemorated with an annual cathedral sermon on August 10.
The old tower remained for nine more years and a new tower replaced it the following year (January 1643). Wityh the demolition of the old tower, the "stave church" period was finally over.
No contemporary documents relating to the installation of the church bells have been found. The bells are mentioned retrospectively by Eric Cederbourg (1739):
The first tower clock mechanism, made by clockmaker Per Larsson in 1648, was replaced in 1670 by another one made by Jacob Hertingk of Stralsund.
The church was built of granite faced with Dutch bricks and was adorned with 18 iron-trimmed Palladian windows placed between buttressing supports, and an ornate arched entry door with iron fittings. The building was 48.1 meters long, 20.2 meters wide and 26.5 meters high at the pediment roof, built without a transept. The tower wall was 27.6 feet high, not counting the tower spire. The church roof was clad with oaken shingles and topped with copper plates, at the eastern end of the roof hip was a weather vane in the form of a large copper-gilded sun, which in 1700 had been so weakened that it was replaced with a wooden cap.
From 1625 to 1634 the construction cost increased to 8,387 Swedish riksdaler. The church is referred to in the accounting records as the stora kyrkan (the "great church"), as mentioned previously. The rectory had been completed as early as 1624. The church was not designated as a "cathedral" (domkyrke) until the 1680s.The cathedral interior
The cathedral had 17 octagonal bearing columns — eight located on each side of the nave and the 17th in the choir. They had a square socle, each side 2 ells (1.2 metres) wide.
After the church's first pulpit was replaced in the late 1670s, the former cathedral pulpit was transferred in 1682 to the then newly built Kungälvs Church. The original pulpit was of the German-Dutch type, and its intarsia and other carving work suggests that it had been crafted either in Lübeck or by some North Germans residing in Gothenburg. Perhaps it had already been completed by the time of the church inauguration. The sculptor Marcus Jaeger the Elder carved the new pulpit with historical images in alabaster and ebony in 1674. He also made the baptismal font and executed numerous carvings on the lecterns and pews.
The cathedral spire was demolished in 1700 when it was replaced by a new one.
The cathedral also included a throne (a royal pew), which was placed over grave No. 19, situated to the south of the nave between the first two pillars from the chancel. It was completed in the 1680s by Marcus Jaeger, who was paid 960 silver riksdaler for the work. In 1869 the tailor Torsten Gunnarsson upholstered the throne in red velvet, likely in honour of Charles XI's visit to Gothenburg on September 10 of that year. Four years later John Hammer undertook, for 400 silver riksdaler, to paint the king's throne in white alabaster and gold.
The first organ, likely a positive organ with only 4 to 6 stops, had been installed by 1648. In 1661 organ builder Hans Horn completed a new pipe organ.
Around the year 1700, additional work was completed on the church organ. Marcus Jaeger was hired in 1697 to produce four Corinthian pillars beneath the organ to raise it to a greater height, probably in the west part of the nave, near the tower wall. The organ was repaired several times — in 1696 by Christian Rüdiger, in 1699 by John George Ambthor and in 1707 by Elias Wittig. Both Rüdiger and Ambthor were German organ masters, while Wittig was a journeyman.Designation as cathedral
The church was part of the established Church of Sweden and had been at first named "Gustavi church" after Gustavus Adolphus. It was also known as Svenska kyrkan (the "Swedish church"), to distinguish it from Gothenburg's German- and Dutch-language Christinenkirche, known familiarly as Tyska kyrkan (the "German church"). By the change from the superintendentcy title to a bishopric and the establishment of a cathedral chapter in 1665, it was elevated to the status of cathedral.Cemeteries
The city's oldest cemetery was located at the foot of Kvarnberget, west of Kronhuset — once an armoury and now used as a historical museum and concert site — on the corner of the present Torggatan, then called Kyrkogårdsgränden and Sillgatan (now Postgatan). With the marshy area around the cathedral having been filled with sand by 1645, it was used instead of the church as a burial ground. The square — known by 1846 as Domkyrkoplatsen ("Cathedral Plaza") and by 1883 as Domkyrkoplanen ("Cathedral Close") 1883 — had since 1644 been demarcated by a wall with arched gates to the north and south.The second cathedral
On the night of 15 April 1721 the cathedral, high school and 211 nearby residential buildings in the area of the cathedral burned down. As the walls of the church still remained, it was possible to restore the building relatively quickly. Barely a month after the fire, as mandated by City Manager (politieborgmästare) Hans von Gerdes (1637–1723), the architect Paul Ludvig Leyonsparre presented three options for rebuilding the church, the third of which was recommended by County Governor (landshövding") Nils Posse.
On 25 May 1722, only 13 months after the fire, the cathedral reopened, having the same dimensions as the old cathedral, but with a tower capital instead of the former spire.
The roof proved to be so leaky that County Governor Axel Gyllenkrok complained in October 1724 of rain and snow infiltration. In December 1725, therefore, the city engineer was instructed to draw up proposals for a new copper roof covering, and work began in June 1726.
The tower, however, took another ten years to complete, and city engineer Johan Eberhard Carlberg — an uncle of Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, the architect of the current cathedral — designed a temporary belfry for the churchyard. It could not be put into service until 1726, because the bell had to be cast in a foundry, but it was in use for six years, until 1732, when the new tower was finally brought into service.
The new tower was designed by the builder of the German Christinenkirche tower, the naval master builder Nicolaus Müller.
The new Swedish church's tower closely resembled that of the German church and, judging by city pictures of that time, even had a similar cap. The tower was octagonal, and its top was 26.7 metres above the tower wall. The largest of the three church bells weighed 1,700 kg, while the other two weighed 1,020 kg. each. They had been cast in 1726 by Erik Näsman, who had moved from Jönköping to Stockholm and who cast a bell for Skara Cathedral the following year.
The ceiling came into place during the years 1734 through 1739. The south-side lectern was finished in 1739. The church floor was finally completed in April 1740 with 1,400 tiles of Öland limestone, 2 Swedish ells (59.4 cm) square and 2.25 Swedish inches (5.57 cm) thick.
In October 1731 Carlberg received approval for his architectural drawing of a (provisional) pulpit. An organ was built in 1733–1734 by the organ builder Johan Niclas Cahman. A contract signed January 11, 1733 specified that the organ was to be completed "in a good and perfect state, equal to the organ works now to be found in Uppsala." The organ cost 8,500 silver riksdaler, and was equipped with 32 stops and 5 bellows.
In January 1750 superintendent Carl Hårleman proposed a sculpted altarpiece to portray Christ, a cross and two kneeling angels. The cost of the artwork was donated by pharmacist Franz Martin Luth (1679–1763). The contract was let on 1 March 1751, the altar was completed on 1 February 1754, and the inauguration took place 1 December 1754. This altar is still used as the altar of the cathedral.
In 1769 a charnel house (benhus) was built on the northwestern part of the cathedral block, on the corner of Kyrkogatan and Västra Hamngatan, with space for forty coffins. To avoid a bad smell in the church, the mayor and council (magistrat ) of Gothenburg decided that all corpses buried during the six warmer months from April 1 to October 1 would first be stored in the benhus.
In the same year as the charnel house was added, the churchyard wall was also finished. It was a 469-ells (approximately 279 metres) wall around Domkyrkoplanen, with a granite footing; the wall itself was of brick and covered by large blocks of chiselled Öland limestone. Set into the walls were five spacious gates, built of hard-fired clinker brick and covered with sheet lead. The materials from three of these gates were moved after the 1802 fire in 1802 to the new cemetery at the poorhouse meadow in the Stampen ward (primärområde) of Gothenburg.
In 1775 French sculptor Pierre Hubert Larchevesque (1721–1778) sculpted a cathedral monument to Colin Campbell (1686–1757), the co-founder of the Swedish East India Company.The third (current) cathedral
The second cathedral burned down on 20 December 1802 along with 179 houses. John Hall the Elder's funeral had been held in the cathedral shortly before, and his remains stayed pending completion of a large tomb was deployed to Örgryte Cemetery, but the corpse and the costly coffin fell prey to the flames. Graves in the old cemetery surrounding the cathedral were destroyed too so sharply from the fire that churchyard had to be abandoned as a burial ground. Burials moved to the "New Cemetery" at Stampen, which opened May 11, 1804 and was originally intended only for the congregations of the cathedral and of the Christinenkirche. Materials from the demolished cathedral walls and three iron gates were sold at auction and the proceeds used to a new cemetery enclosure at Stampen.
This time the church building was so severely damaged that the walls could not be reused. A new church was then built, starting in 1804. The old church's grounds could be reused to the extent that coinciding with the old (transverse did not exist previously, for example). stone from the old church was used for private buildings, among other things, teaches the "Ingelmanska house" at the East Harbor Road to be built by them. The church was consecrated by the bishop Johan Wingård on Holy Trinity day on 21 May 1815.
The new cathedral was designed by architect Carl Wilhelm Carlberg, and until 1808, when the walls of the church reached full height, slutgodkändes and enshrined drawings of the Royal. Maj: t. Carlberg died on 14 April 1814 and construction was completed followed by his disciple, Major Justus Frederick Weinberg. It is said that Weinberg did not attend the inauguration for fear that the church's thin, flat arches would collapse. In the early 20th century reinforced the structure. The Church was not ready at the opening this time either, because the tower was missing yet. The entire cathedral was completely finished until twelve years later, while the tower was ready to be inaugurated ten years later, in 1825. Male afford a second inauguration on 9 September 1827, then tornhuvens copper clothing was in place.
During the same time, 1807, Dean Hall was built in the corner of Cross Street 22 and Vallgatan 28 after wall-builder Gottlieb Lindner's drawings.
After the 1802 fire, the old cemetery was converted into an open square, Kyrkotorget, and 1822 was declared the whole area around the church, and west to Western Hamnkanalen (which joined in the middle of the current Western Port Road, and was filled in 1903–1905) with cobblestone and the name was changed in 1846 toDomkyrkoplatsen. In 1851 were planted throughout the site around the church and then surrounded with iron fencing around 1860. The name was later to beDomkyrkoplanen, which was fixed in 1883. The Church exterior was after completion, basically the one we see today. The major change made is that the terminal walls of the tower's lateral extensions was demolished in 1832 and replaced by an iron railing. The cathedral's assessed value in 1889 was 500,000 Swedish kronor.
It is estimated that approximately 20,000 people have been buried in the church area, while 3,000 people are buried inside the church during the years 1635–1802. On the chancel's east side is a plaque which recalls this with the following text:
The Cathedral was the first church in Sweden to be fitted with central heating. The installation took place in 1852 under the leadership of the English civil engineer Hadon's management. The following year, 1853, gas lighting was installed for illumination.
The church was insured in 1857 inFire, Skandia Insurance Company with a value of 500 000 Riksdaler riksmynt.
The church tower began to lean precariously to the southwest in the early 20th century, and the church and domkyrkoplanen shut down for an extended period of work on basic reinforcement going on. High Mass was held in which the German Church and evensong, and weekly church services were held in Landala chapel.
In 1904 conducted a comprehensive restoration. The church then received new flooring, new windows and doors, new benches and new thermal management system. Episcopal priest and pews were removed, along with organ lighter wings, and was directed up the stands. For a complete repainting was also, along with gilding of pulpit and altar group, and the whole was thus a light and uplifting atmosphere color of the white t and gold. Three chandeliers in bridge and Renaissance, compose by the same architect who carried out the restoration, Axel Lindegren, hung from the ceiling. Finally rebuilt organ s of the Director Eskil Lunden.
The cathedral was restored again 1954–1957, which include the drive down the 313 concrete piles into the bedrock to stabilize the building. The church was subsequently to be erected on 'the vast marshy most of the city". Years 1983–1985 was another Renovation ar.
By going lift a piece and then take a staircase of 151 steps, it was until the late 1990s to visit the cathedral tower and one of its eight small balcony er. The fee in 1997 was $ 20 for an adult and $ 10 for a child.Cathedral architecture
The current cathedral from 1815 was designed in classical style, and had greater dimensions than the previous two. It is 59.4 meters long and 38 meters wide - including the new transept, which did not previously exist, while cattle t and nave he has the width of 22.86 meters. Furthermore, the nave interior height 14.25 metres and 52.85 meters in the tower's height.
A clear example of classical style cathedral is the big head Portal one in the West. It is framed by four Doric column s (ancient Greek columns), which receives a pediment party. They were carved in Gothenburg by Scottish sand by Aberdeen. Also pilasters s of the cathedral walls are of the Doric order. Also tower cap is adorned with classical Doric frontonpartier and portals.
The outer walls are entirely walled in yellow T so-called Dutch t clay, which means that the bricks are smaller than usual. In addition, the walls of an outer clothing in the form of ornaments, such as classical blank rings, lists and friezes made of Flensburg ssten.
These ornaments are another example of the classical style, such as the highlighted cornice (frieze) towers over the hood, as well as the toothed bar under roof and friezes around the building.Trim and interior
The interior shows elements of various styles, mainly classicism and Empire style.
Klassisicmen visible example of the Ionic a pilasters in the cattle wall. These are built of red marble with gold leaf on top. Although the stands in the Church CROSS-ARMED s of the transept and organ loft in the west are examples of classicism, as all lighter in transverse and in the west lies the sixteen independent Tuscan wood columns.
Emipstilen is represented in the combination of white and gold leaf in many of the interior fittings, the glazed episcopal bench that is used today to chat to visitors and clergy, the wall clock and the stands. Another example is the pulpit (see image at right) designed by architect and Professor n Axel Magnus Fahlcrantz.
Angelic figures on the altar represents instead a more Baroque emphasized style, because they belong to the ancient altar set from the 18th century. They are sculpted 1752 by Jacques Adrien Masreliez, led by the famous Carl Hårleman and could be salvaged from the fire.
Cathedral interior provides a bright and easily impressed by the white paint and gold leaf. The church does not completely weapons pictures on the walls because of the devastating fire 1802nd Weapon Pictures characterize otherwise churches foundation for Golden Age and before that.
The old white part gold-plated a grandfather clock in the Cathedral is from the 18th century and thus was saved from the fire 1802nd It was moved during the 1954–1957 restoration to the south-east transverse wall at the entrance biskopsbänkens. Earlier, it was at the southern long wall on King Street. The clock is inklätt in a painted cover with gilded moldings that go in style with other furnishings in the church. It was produced in 1751 by watchmaker Olof Rising in Gothenburg, who also made clockwork. In 1957 Gothenburg clock specialist Arthur Johnson refurbished it thoroughly, even restoring the beautiful silver-sounding percussion. Nature Agency is usually not because it might interfere with worship life and other activities in the church.The organ
The current church organ in the organ loft in the west dates to 1962 but has maintained its classical organ façade in white and gold. The previous organ was built by Stockholm organ builder Olof Schwan (1744–1812), who was contracted on August 3, 1805, but died in 1812. The work was taken over now by John Eberhard, and on December 1, 1816, the new organ was inaugurated. Here is a description of the installation of "Götheborgs Foundation History and Herdaminne", 1835: