Foulis Castle
Foulis Castle lies in the parish of Kiltearn, about 1.5 miles southwest of the village of Evanton in the Highland area of northern Scotland. The castle has been the seat of the Clan Munro for over eight hundred years. During the 11th century, the clan chief was given the castle and Foulis lands as a reward from the Earl of Ross for defeating Viking invaders. The remains of an 11th-century Motte (man-made mound topped by a wooden palisade), believed to be the very first fortification at Foulis, still remain in the castle grounds today.

Early history
Foulis Castle itself is mentioned briefly in records that date back to the 14th century although the original Tower of Foulis was believed to have been built in 1154. It is recorded by contemporary evidence that Uilleam III, Earl of Ross granted a charter to Robert de Munro of Foulis for the lands of "Estirfowlys" with the "Tower of Strathskehech" from 1350. It is also recorded that Euphemia I, Countess of Ross granted two charters to Robert's son, Hugh Munro, 9th Baron of Foulis in 1394. One of them dated 4 May 1394 is in respect of the "Wesstir Fowlys" and the "Tower of Strathschech", named so because of the River Sgitheach that passes through nearby Strath Skiach and into the Cromarty Firth. A document signed and sealed at Foulis Castle in 1491 reads in Gaelic "caisteal biorach, nead na h-iolair", which means "castle gaunt-peaked, the eagle's nest".This is in allusion to the clan chief's hereldic emblem. In 1542 Donald MacKay of Strathnaver, chief of the Clan MacKay was imprisoned in Foulis Castle, when he was captured after the Battle of Alltan-Beath. The castles "tower and fortalice" are also mentioned in a charter from the crown in 1587. In times of clan warfare, a signal beacon was lit on the highest tower of Foulis Castle to gather the clan under arms, hence the Munro slogan or gathering cry of " Caisteal Foghlais na theine," meaning Castle Foulis ablaze. The castle survived up to the 18th century until it was attacked by Jacobites in 1746. The Clan Munro had been away on duty for the Government under the command of the chief's brother George Munro of Culcairn. Chief Sir Robert was commanding an English regiment at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) with his brother Dr Duncan Munro where they were both killed. After which the castle was burned by the Jacobites. Robert's son the next successive chief, Sir Harry Munro returned home from captivity to find the castle had been set on fire and much of the castle had been destroyed. The Jacobites were defeated just a few months later by Government forces at the Battle of Culloden. Chief Sir Harry Munro set about rebuilding the castle incorporating what he could of the original building. However as the Battle of Culloden had brought a complete end to the Highland clan system there was no need for such a defensive fort anymore. As with many castles at this time it was re-built as a large mansion house as we see it today.

Restoration
Unfortunately no records survive of what the fortifications at Castle Foulis looked like before 1746. However much has been learned about the castle and what the fortifications might have looked before 1746 by Captain and Mrs. Munro in their various stages of restoration. They believe that it was probably surrounded by a series of smaller dwellings, of possibly a fortified nature. They found in 1957–59, much evidence to suggest that in the courtyard area horses and cattle were kept, and that it was a self-contained community able to withstand a siege, when attacked. Certainly the foundations of the Castle are of mammoth proportions, as has been found by the late Chief during the three stages of restoration that he and his wife have carried out — in 1957–59, 1977–79, and most recently, in 1985–86. The Tower was obviously a "fortification", as its walls at the ground level are a massive five feet six inches thick. In May 1985, while repairs were being carried out in part to the Courtyard building, an interesting discovery was made. Four "cannon loops of an inverted key hole type," dating from the early part of the 16th century, were discovered behind four wedge-shaped, blocked-up apertures facing north, south, east and west in a five-foot-, six-inch-thick wall. Above them is a barrel-vaulted stone ceiling. This building, at one time separate from the Castle, had certainly been constructed as a small defensive fort with an all-round "field of fire" to guard against possible attack. At some later date, perhaps after 1746 and when the Chief felt that the chances of attack had lessened, the use of this building had changed. Three of the apertures had been completely blocked while the fourth had been partially blocked, leaving a narrow slit six inches wide and three feet long, into which a three-quarter-inch iron bar was strongly built, giving light, some air and access through which food could be passed to the unfortunate prisoner. It was likely the castle's gaol. According to Munro sources, some of the stone wall of the original castle was found under the plaster of the current main mansion house building at Foulis. Foulis Castle is not to be confused with Fowlis Castle, a completely different, and much smaller, fortified house in the village of Fowlis Easter, near Dundee. The coincidence in name is doubtless to be attributed to both castles being derived from Gaelic - foghlais, 'streamlet'.

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