Edo Castle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone or spelling. You can assist by editing it. (August 2008) Please add Japanese script to this article, where needed. Edo Castle 江戸城 Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan Edo Castle with surrounding residential palaces and moats, from a 17th century screen painting. Type Flatland Built 1457 Built by Ōta Dōkan, Tokugawa Ieyasu Construction materials granite stone, earthwork, wood In use 1457- 1868, then from 1868- 1873 Demolished The tenshu (keep) was destroyed by fire in 1657, most of the rest was destroyed by another major fire on 5 May 1873, and during World War II. Current condition Mostly ruins, parts reconstructed after World War II. Site today of Tokyo Imperial Palace. Controlled by Imperial Household Agency Occupants Tokugawa shoguns, Japanese emperors and imperial family since the Meiji era Aerial view of the inner grounds of Edo Castle, today the location of Tokyo Imperial Palace Edo Castle ( 江戸城 , Edo-jō ? ), also known as Chiyoda Castle ( 千代田城 , Chiyoda-jō ? ), is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is located in Chiyoda in Tokyo, then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here. It was the residence of the shogun and location of the shogunate, and also functioned as the military capital during the Edo period of Japanese history. After the vacation of the shogun and the Meiji Restoration, it became the Tokyo Imperial Palace. Some moats, walls and ramparts of the castle survive to this day. However, the grounds were much more extensive during the Edo period, with Tokyo Station and the Marunouchi section of the city lying within the outermost moat. It also encompassed Kitanomaru Park, the Nippon Budokan Hall and other landmarks of the surrounding area. Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Appearance of Edo Castle
    • 2.1 Gates
    • 2.2 Military
  • 3 Honmaru
    • 3.1 Kitahanebashimon
    • 3.2 Tenshu-dai
    • 3.3 Honmaru Palace
    • 3.4 Fujimi-yagura
    • 3.5 Fujimi-tamon
    • 3.6 Ishimuro
    • 3.7 Shiomi-zaka
  • 4 Ninomaru
    • 4.1 Dōshin-bansho
    • 4.2 Hyakunin-bansho
    • 4.3 Ō-bansho
    • 4.4 Suwa-no-Chaya
  • 5 Sannomaru
    • 5.1 Bairin-zaka
    • 5.2 Hirakawa-mon
    • 5.3 Ōte-mon
    • 5.4 Tatsumi-yagura
    • 5.5 Kikyō-mon
  • 6 Nishinomaru
    • 6.1 Sakurada-mon
    • 6.2 Nijūbashi
    • 6.3 Fushimi-yagura
    • 6.4 Sakashita-mon
    • 6.5 Momijiyama
  • 7 Fukiage
    • 7.1 Inui-mon
    • 7.2 Hanzōmon
  • 8 Kitanomaru
  • 9 Modern Tokyo
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

[ edit] History Map of Edo Castle grounds around 1849 ( click to see legend) Marker at the site of Matsu no Ōrōka, the Corridor of Pines, where the events of the tale of the Forty-seven Ronin began The warrior Edo Shigetsugu built his residence in what is now the Honmaru and Ninomaru part of Edo Castle, around the end of the Heian or the beginning of the Kamakura period. The Edo clan perished in the fifteenth century as a result of uprisings in the Kantō region, and Ota Dokan, a retainer of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi family, built Edo Castle in 1457. The castle later came under the control of the Late Hōjō clan. The castle was vacated in 1590 due to the Siege of Odawara. Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo Castle his base after he was offered six eastern provinces by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He later defeated Toyotomi Hideyori, son of Hideyoshi, at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, and emerged as the political leader of Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of Seii Taishōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of Tokugawa administration. Initially, the area was not habitable with parts of it lying under water. The sea reached the later Nishinomaru area of Edo Castle, and Hibiya was a beach. The land was changed for the construction of the castle. [1 ] Most construction took place starting in 1593 and reached completion in 1636 under the grandson Tokugawa Iemitsu. By this time, Edo had a population of 150,000. [2 ] The grounds grew with the addition of Nishinomaru, Nishinomaru-shita, Fukiage, and Kitanomaru areas to the existing Honmaru, Ninomaru, and Sannomaru areas. The perimeter measured 16 km. The daimyo were required by the shōgun to supply building materials or finances, a method used by the shogunate to keep the powers of the daimyo in check. Large granite stones were moved from afar, the size and number of the stones depending on the wealth of the daimyo. The wealthier ones had to contribute more. Those who did not supply stones were required to contribute labour in tasks like digging the large moats and flattening hills. The earth that was taken out from the moats were used as landfill for sea-reclamation or to level the ground. Thus the construction of Edo Castle laid the foundation for parts of the city where merchants were able to settle. At least 10,000 men were involved in the first phase of the construction and more than 300,000 in the middle phase. [3 ] . When construction ended, the castle had 38 gates. The ramparts were almost 20 metres and the outer walls 12 metres high. Moats in rough concentric circles were dug throughout for further protection. Some of the moats reached as far as Ichigaya and Yotsuya areas, parts of the ramparts survive to this day. Either the sea or the Kanda river surrounded it, enabling navigation by ships. Various fires over the centuries damaged or destroyed parts of the castle, since Edo and the majority of the buildings were constructed out of wood. On April 21, 1701, in the Great Pine Corridor ( Matsu no Ōrōka ) of Edo Castle, Asano Takumi-no-kami drew his short sword and attempted to kill Kira Kōzuke-no-suke for insulting him. This triggered the events involving the Forty-seven Ronin. After the capitulation of the shogunate in 1867, the inhabitants including the shogun had to vacate the premises. The castle compound was renamed Tokyo Castle ( 東京城 , Tokyo-jō ? ) in October, 1868, and then renamed Imperial Castle ( 皇城 , Kōjō ? ) in 1869. In the year Meiji 2 (1868), on the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor moved to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. [4 ] A fire consumed the whole of the old Edo Castle on the night of May 5, 1873. The area around the old donjon, which burned in the 1657 Meireki fire, became the site of the new imperial Palace Castle ( 宮城 , Kyūjō ? ) built in 1888. Some Tokugawa era buildings that were still left were destroyed to make space for new structures for the imperial government. The imperial palace building itself, however, was not on the same location as the shogun's palace, which was located in Honmaru. The site suffered substantial damage during the second world war and the destruction of Tokyo. Today the site is part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. The government has declared the area an historic site and have undertaken steps to restore and preserve the remaining structures of Edo Castle. [ edit] Appearance of Edo Castle The plan of Edo Castle is not only large but elaborate. The grounds were divided into various enceintes, or citadels. The Honmaru was in the center, with the Ninomaru (second compound), Sannomaru (third compound), Nishinomaru (west compound) and the outer section of Nishinomaru (now the Outer Gardens of the Imperial Palace), Fukiage (firebreak compound) and the Kitanomaru (north compound). The different enceintes were divided by moats and large stone walls, on which were various keeps, defence houses and towers were built. Ishigaki stone walls were constructed around the Honmaru and the eastern side of the Nishinomaru. Each enceinte could be reached via wooden bridges, which were buffered by two gates on both sides. The circumference is subject to debate, with estimates ranging from six to ten miles. [5 ] Folding screen depicting scenes of the attendance of daimyo at Edo Castle in 1847. Hasuike-Tatsumi-Sanjū-yagura is at the center, Kikyō-mon (the inner Sakurada-mon) on the right side. Signs alongside the moat are written with the words " geba" (dismount). The attending daimyo were required to reduce their number of attendants before entering the inner castle compound. Signs with the family names of each entourage identify them (counting from the right side the first panel) from the Okayama Domain, Fukuoka Domain (fourth panel), Kurume Domain (fifth panel), Tottori Domain (sixth panel), Satsuma and Izumo Domains (seventh panel) and the Sendai Domain (eighth panel). With the enforcement of the sankin kōtai system in the 17th century, it became expedient for the various daimyo to set up residence in Edo in close proximity to the shogun. Surrounding the inner compounds of the castle were the residences of various daimyo, most of which were concentrated at the Outer Sakurada Gate to the south-east and east of the castle inside the outer moat, although some residences were also located within the inner moats in the outer Nishinomaru. The mansions were very elaborate and large, with no expenses spared to construct palaces with Japanese gardens and multiple gates. Each block had four to six of the mansions, which were surrounded by ditches for drainage. [6 ] Daimyo with lesser wealth were allowed to set up their houses, called bancho, to the north and west of the castle. To the east and south of the castle were sections that were set aside for merchants, since this area was considered unsuitable for residences. The entertainment district Yoshiwara was also located here. [ edit] Gates The inner citadels of the castle were protected by multiple large and smaller wooden gates, constructed in-between the gaps of the stone wall. Not many are left today. From south to southwest to north, the gates are the main gate at Nijūbashi, Sakurada-mon, Sakashita-mon, Kikyō-mon, Hanzō-mon, Inui-mon, Ōte-mon, Hirakawa-mon and Kitahanebashi-mon. Only the stone foundations of the other gates (meaning the gap left in between the large stone walls for the wooden gates) are still left. Large gates, such as the Ōte-mon, had a guard of 120 men, while smaller gates were guarded by 30 to 70 armed men. An eye-witness account is given by the French director François Caron from the Dutch colony at Dejima. He described the gates and courts being laid out in such a manner as to confuse an outsider. Caron noted that the gates were not placed in a straight line, but were staggered, forcing a person to make a 90 degree turn to pass on to the next gate. [5 ] This style of construction for the main gates is called masugata, meaning 'square'. As noted by Caron, the gate consists of a square-shaped courtyard or enclosure and a two story gatehouse, which is entered via three roofed kōrai-mon. The watari-yagura-mon was constructed at adjacent angles to each side within the gate. [7 ] All major gates had large timbers framing the main entry point and were constructed to impress and proclaim the might of the shogunate. [ edit] Military Accounts of how many armed men served at Edo Castle vary. The Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco gave an eye-witness account in 1608-09, describing the huge stones that made up the walls and the large number of people at the castle. He claimed to have seen 20,000 servants between the first gate and the shogun's palace. He passed through two ranks of 1,000 soldiers armed with muskets, and by the second gate he was escorted by 400 armed men. He passed stables that apparently had room for 200 horses and an armoury that had enough weapons for 100,000 men [8 ] . [ edit] Honmaru The main tower (upper right) with the surrounding Honmaru palace, Bairinzaka, Hirakawaguchi Gate and Ninomaru (lower part) The Honmaru (本丸), sometimes also spelled Hommaru, was the central, innermost part of the castle and residence of the shogun himself. The stately and luxurious main buildings of the Honmaru, consisting of the outer, central, and inner halls, were said to have covered an area of 33,000 square metres during the Kan-ei era (1624-1644). Surrounding the donjon of the Honmaru were eleven keeps, fifteen defense houses and more than twenty gates. Honmaru, frequently destroyed by fire, was reconstructed each time afterwards. The donjon however was destroyed in 1657 and the main palace in 1863 and not reconstructed. Some remains, such as the Fujimi-yagura keep and Fujimi-tamon defense house still exist. The Honmaru is surrounded by moats from all sides, although the part to the Ninomaru has partly been filled in in since the Meiji era. The moats to the north to the Kitanomaru are the Inui-bori and Hirakawa-bori, Hakuchō-bori to the east to the Ninomaru, Hamaguri-bori to the Nishinomaru. [ edit] Kitahanebashimon Kitahanebashimon ( 北桔橋門 ? , lit. "Northern Drawbridge Gate") is the northern gate to the Honmaru enceinte, facing Kitanomaru enceinte across Daikan-cho street. It is also constructed as a masu-gate just like Ōte-mon and Hirakawa-mon, and has a watari-yagura-mon in a left angle within. The bridge in front of the gate is now fixed to the ground, but was a drawbridge during the Edo period. The metal clasps used to draw the bridge are still attached to the roof of the gate. Kitahanebashi-mon [ edit] Tenshu-dai Stone foundation of the main tower ( tenshu) The foundations of the main donjon or tower (known as the tenshudai ( 天守台 ? )) are all that is left of the once mighty structure. The donjon was located in the northern corner of the Honmaru enceinte. Kitahanebashi-mon is located right next to it and was one of the main gateways to this innermost part. The measurements are 41 metres width from east to west, length of 45 metres from north to south, and height of 11 metres. A five-storey donjon used to stand on this base which had a total height of 51 metres and was thus the highest castle tower in the whole of Japan, symbolising the power of the shogun. The donjon with its multiple roofs was constructed in 1607 and ornamented with gold. It was destroyed in the 1657 Fire of Meireki and not reconstructed. Despite this, jidaigeki movies (such as Abarembo shogun) set in Edo usually depict Edo Castle as having a donjon, and substitute Himeji Castle for that purpose. A non-profit "Rebuilding Edo-jo Association" was founded with the aim of a historically correct reconstruction of at least the main donjon. [9 ] [ edit] Honmaru Palace Model of shiro shoin (White study room), used for meetings with imperial messengers The residential Honmaru Palace ( 本丸御殿 , honmaru-goten ? ) and the gardens of the shogun and his court were constructed around the castle keep in the Honmaru area. It consisted of a series of low-level buildings, connected by corridors and congregating around various gardens and courtyards or lying detached, similar to the structures that can be seen in Nijo Castle in Kyoto today. These structures were used for either residential or governmental purposes such as audiences. The Honmaru Palace was one storey high. It consisted of three sections:

  • The Ō-omote (Great Outer Palace) contained reception rooms for public audience and apartments for guards and some officials;
  • The Naka-oku (middle interior) was where the shogun received his relatives, higher lords and met his counselors for the affairs of state;
  • Ōoku (great interior) contained the private apartments of the shogun and his ladies-in-waiting. The great interior was strictly off-limits and communication went through young messenger boys. [10 ] The great interior was apparently 1,000 tatami mats in size and could be divided into sections by the use of sliding shōji doors, which were painted in elegant schemes.

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