Clifton College
Clifton College is a co-educational independent school in Clifton, Bristol, England, founded in 1862. In its early years it was notable (compared with most Public Schools of the time) for emphasising science in the curriculum, and for being less concerned with social elitism, e.g. by admitting day-boys on equal terms and providing a dedicated boarding house for Jewish boys. Having linked its General Studies classes with Badminton School since 1972, it admitted girls to the Sixth Form in 1987 and is now fully coeducational. The dedicated Jewish boarding house closed in 2005. Clifton is one of the original 26 English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Yearbook of 1889.

Introduction
The school takes boys and girls aged between 13 and 18. It has a nearby preparatory school, Clifton College Preparatory School (known as the 'Pre'), for children from 8 to 13 which is nearby and shares many of the same facilities; also a pre-preparatory school for younger children aged 3 to 8 called Butcombe. To distinguish it from the junior schools, Clifton College proper is sometimes referred to as the 'Upper School'. There are around 720 children in the Upper School of which about a third are girls. At the start of the 2004 - 2005 school year, a new boarding/day house for girls was opened. In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading private schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times , which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents. Each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared.

Houses
The Upper School boys' houses are:
  • School House (boarding)
  • Moberly's House (boarding)
  • Wiseman's House (boarding)
  • Watson's House (boarding)
  • East Town (day)
  • The South Town (day)
  • North Town (day)
The girls' houses are:
  • Worcester House (boarding)
  • Oakeley's House (boarding)
  • West Town (day)
  • Hallward's House (predominantly boarding with some day)
Before 1987, Clifton was a boys-only school with seven boarding houses (School House, Brown's, Watson's, Dakyn's, Oakeley's, Wiseman's, Polack's) and three day houses (East Town, North Town and The South Town). Polack's House, which took Jewish boys only, was closed in 2005. It is traditional that day-pupil only houses are known as "Towns" and any house that admits boarders "Houses". The prefix "The" to The South Town originates from the first boys' day house: "The Town". When attendance became too large, the decision was made to split the house into two new ones: "South Town" and "North Town". To decide which house would remain in the building a football match was played; as South Town won the game, they stayed in the original building and kept the prefix "The".

Buildings and grounds

The first school buildings
The college buildings were designed by the architect Charles Hansom (the brother of Joseph Hansom); his first design was for Big School and a proposed dining hall. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866 ”“ this is what now contains the Marshal’s office and the new staircase into Big School. It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. Hansom was called back in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms. This project was largely completed by 1875 ”“ although the Wilson Tower was not built until 1890 (grade II listed ). Other buildings were added as follows:
  • By 1875, Brown’s, Dakyns’ and Oakley’s had been opened along with what is now 32 College Road ”“ originally this functioned as accommodation for bachelor masters
  • Three fives courts (1864)
  • The original sanitorium (1865)
  • Gymnasium (1867)
  • Two swimming pools (1869)
  • An open rackets court (1872)
  • The present workshop (1873)
  • The Chapel (1867); this was built to Charles Hansom’s original design, but was moved from the intended site (which is now the gym). As built, the Chapel was a narrow aisleless building, and just the width of its present west end. It was the gift of Mrs Guthrie, the widow of Canon Guthrie. Hansom was given permission “to quarry sufficient stone from the college grounds for the purposes of the Chapel building”.
The Chapel building was licensed by the Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol in 1867. It is now grade II* listed. The school’s present buildings have evolved in four phases:
  • The early Percival years, when the nucleus of the school buildings was laid down.
  • The 1880s. In 1880, the school’s East Wing was completed as far as the staircase (this had yet to be linked to the library by the Wilson Tower) and added a science lecture-room (which is the reason for the curious 'stepped' windows), a laboratory and several classrooms.
In 1886, a porters' lodge and what is now the staff common room were added by enlarging what had been the original science school. On the ground floor was the school tuck-shop and above this (in what is now the Upper Common Room) was a drawing-school. The day boys were provided for in Town Rooms for both North and South Town. The East Wing was then completed by carrying it beyond the staircase and then creating an additional classroom at each end. The ground-floor classroom (then Room 12) is now known as the "Newbolt Room" and has been furnished by the Old Cliftonian Society, who still use it for reunions. Between 1890 and the start of the First World War, the new Music School (1897) was added and the Chapel rebuilt (1910).
  • The 1920s. Dr John King, whose headmastership spanned the war years, had little scope for building after 1914, but he did oversee the development of the playing fields at Beggar's Bush, the building of the Memorial Arch, the neo-classical cricket pavilion and the opening of the new Sanitorium in Worcester Road.
On 3 December 1918, the former headmaster John Percival died and was buried in the vault of the school Chapel. In 1921, a special memorial chapel was created and consecrated about his tomb. Norman Whatley was the headmaster between 1923 and 1938; his tenure saw the building of the Science School (on the site of the previous Junior School) and the opening of the Preparatory School. Also at this time, the school acquired Hugh Easton's new east windows. The windows also contain a curiosity: beneath the representation of the heavenly Jerusalem is depicted a game of cricket on the Close - with one of Whatley's sons taking part! In 1965-1967, the theatre was built by the architects Whicheloe and MacFarlane.
  • The 1980s. In 1982, on the site of the old swimming pools, the new Sports Hall, remedial gym and a new covered swimming pool were built ”“ something that would have been appreciated by the generations of boys forced to use the old outdoor Victorian pool and its outdoor covered changing cubicles.
The 1980s also saw the building of the Coulson Centre which links together two previously separate classroom blocks, at Muir and Birdwood houses. As a result of the improvements in modern medicine, the Sanitorium in Worcester Road was unnecessarily large for the school's needs, and so the old pre-1921 Sanatorium on the Close has been refitted to serve this purpose, whilst the Worcester Road sanitorium has been refitted as the Headmaster’s house.

Memorial arch
At the side of College Road, opposite what was Dakyns' boarding house (now East Town and North Town), is the college's memorial arch designed by Charles Holden, which commemorates teachers and pupils who died in the two World Wars. Traditionally, the removal of headgear is expected when walking through the arch. There is also a school rule that states hands must be out of pockets when walking through the arch. It is now grade II listed. The college's buildings, mainly School House, were used as the main HQ where the D-Day landings were devised and planned. The college played a major part in both World Wars; Field Marshal Douglas Haig was an Old Cliftonian who went on to command the British armed forces in the First World War. Through the memorial arch and in front of School House is a life-size statue of Haig. At the edge of the quad is a memorial to those killed in the South African Wars.

Cricket pitches
On one of the college's cricket pitches, now known as Collins' Piece, the highest-ever cricket score was reached in June 1899, in the School House match between Clark's House v North Town. In this match A. E. J. Collins, killed in the First World War, scored 628 not out, but not under the current rules of the game. He was not the first Clifton schoolboy to hold this record: in 1868, Edward Tylecote, who went on to help England reclaim the Ashes in 1882/3, was a previous holder, with 404 not out in a game between Classicals and Moderns. Collins' achievement is commemorated on a small plaque on the side of the ceramics building.

Sporting facilities
The college sporting facilities include:
  • 20 acres (81,000 m 2) of local playing fields including the Close and College fields
  • Close Pavilion
  • Seven on-campus tennis courts
  • On-campus cricket nets
  • 80 acres (320,000 m 2) of playing fields at Clifton College Sports Ground (Begger's Bush Lane) which includes:
    • One 3G Football pitch
    • Two Astroturf hockey pitches
    • Twenty four tennis courts (including some under cover of the dome or 'bubble'
    • Real tennis court
    • New pavilion
  • Gym
  • Indoor heated swimming pool
  • Two indoor gyms
  • Rackets court
  • Four Fives courts


The Close
The college ground, known as the Close, played an important role in the history of cricket and witnessed 13 of W G Grace's first-class hundreds for Gloucestershire in the County Championship. Grace's children attended the college. The Close featured in the poem by O.C. Sir Henry Newbolt - VitaÑ— Lampada There's a breathless hush on the Close to-night Ten to make and the match to win A bumping pitch and a blinding light, An hour to play, and the last man in. And it's not for the sake of a ribboned coat. Or the selfish hope of a season's fame, But his captain's hand on his shoulder smote "Play up! Play up! And play the game!" The sand of the desert is sodden red - Red with the wreck of the square that broke The gatling's jammed and the colonel dead, And the regiment blind with dust and smoke. The river of death has brimmed its banks, And England's far, and Honour a name, But the voice of a schoolboy rallies the ranks - "Play up! Play up! And play the game!" This is the word that year by year, While in her place the school is set, Every one of her sons must hear, And none that hears it dare forget. This they all with a joyful mind Bear through life like a torch in flame, And falling fling to the host behind - "Play up! Play up! And play the game!"

The Marshal
The college employs a master called "The Marshal", whose sole job is to enforce discipline, attendance at classes and other school rules (such as dress code, drinking, smoking and hair length) along with the general maintenance of safety of the pupils at the College. Many public houses near the school had photos of the Marshal, who was permanently banned so as not to discourage the attendance of pupils who were regular customers. The current Marshal is Major Paul Simcox MBE MA, who took over from Ron Cross: however it has recently been announced that he is to leave the College. By tradition, a Marshal's name is not added to the plaque listing the names of the school's Marshals until after his death.

Expeditions
  • 1987 Svalbard
  • 2001 K2 (mountain) (base camp)


Religious community
Clifton has chapel services and a focus on Christianity, but for 125 years there was also a Jewish boarding house (Polack's), complete with kosher dining facilities and synagogue for boys in the Upper School. This was the last of its kind in Europe. However, at the end of the 2004-05 school year, the Polack's trust announced that Polack's House would be closed due to the low numbers of boys in the house (although many pupils were turned down subsequently). The school chapel was the inspiration behind Newbolt's poem Clifton Chapel, which starts: CLIFTON CHAPEL This is the Chapel: here, my son, Your father thought the thoughts of youth, And heard the words that one by one The touch of Life has turn'd to truth. Here in a day that is not far, You too may speak with noble ghosts Of manhood and the vows of war You made before the Lord of Hosts.

Redgrave Theatre
Clifton College owns a theatre, originally known as the Clifton College Theatre but renamed in honour of old-boy actor Michael Redgrave. The theatre was built in the 1960s and has a seating capacity of 323. As well as school productions, the venue hosts visiting small scale productions including many by the nearby Bristol Old Vic Theatre School.

Headmasters
Listed in order of appointment - with the most recent listed last:
  • 1862-1879 John Percival ( Bishop of Hereford)
  • 1879-1890 Canon James Maurice Wilson
  • 1891-1905 Canon Michael George Glazebrook
  • 1905-1909 The Right Reverend Albert Augustus David ( Bishop of Liverpool)
  • 1909-1923 John David King
  • 1923-1938 Norman Whatley
  • 1938-1948 Bertrand Leslie Hallward
  • 1948-1954 Sir Henry Desmond Pritchard Lee
  • 1954-1962 Nicholas Geoffrey Lempriere Hammond
  • 1963-1975 Stephen John McWatters
  • 1975-1990 Stuart Morrison Andrews
  • 1990-2000 Andrew Hugh Monro
  • 2000-2005 Stephen Spurr
  • 2005- Mark J. Moore


Notable former masters
  • T. H. Stokoe
  • Rt Revd Albert David
  • R. P. Keigwin
  • E. V. Rieu
  • Rt Revd David Stancliffe


The Old Cliftonian Society and the Clifton College Register
The Old Cliftonian Society is the Society for the alumni of Clifton College - whether pupils or staff. The OCS organises reunions at the school and publishes a newsletter for alumni. Alumni are known as Old Cliftonians or OCs. The Register's motto: "There be of them, that have left a name behind them, that their praises might be reported..." The Clifton College Register is the official set of records held for Clifton College in Bristol. The Register is kept and maintained by the Old Cliftonian Society. These records have been maintained unbroken from the start of the school in 1862 and list every pupil, master and headmaster. Each person is allocated a school number - for masters and headmasters the number is prefixed with either an M or HM. The Register also maintains a record of the school roll in numbers, the Heads of School and summarises the major sporting records for each year. The Register is published by the Old Cliftonian Society; there are three volumes:
  • 1862 - 1947
  • 1948 - 1977
  • 1978 - 1994
First entries in the Register:-

Pupils
  • P1. Sept 1862 - Francis Charles Anderson (b 14 Nov 1846 - d 1881)


Masters
  • M1. Sept 1862 - Rev T. H. Stokoe (educated at Uppingham; Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford; left 1863; Preacher of Gray's Inn; d 1903)
The early years
  • Numbers of pupils in the school
  • 1862 - 69
  • 1863 - 195 (including the new junior school)
  • 1864 - 237
  • 1865 - 258
  • 1866 - 278
  • Heads of School
  • 1862 - H. W. Wellesley
  • 1863 - A. W. Paul


Old Cliftonians
See List of Old Cliftonians and Category:Old Cliftonians.

Building Activity

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