Chungking Mansions
Chungking Mansions, is a building located at 36”“44 Nathan Road in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. The building is well known as nearly the cheapest accommodation in Hong Kong. Though the building is supposedly residential, it is made up of many independent low-budget hotels, shops, and other services. The unusual atmosphere of the building is sometimes compared to that of Kowloon Walled City. Chungking Mansions features guesthouses, curry restaurants, African bistros, clothing shops, sari stores, and foreign exchange offices. It often acts as a large gathering place for some of the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong, particularly South Asians ( Indians, Nepalese, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans), Middle Eastern people, Nigerians, Europeans, Americans, and many other peoples of the world. Peter Shadbolt of CNN stated that the complex was the "unofficial African quarter of Hong Kong." The building was completed in 1961, at which time Chinese residents predominated. Now, after more than four decades of use, there are an estimated 4,000 people living in the Mansions.

Building structure and housing
Chungking Mansions is 17 stories tall and consists of five blocks, A, B, C, D and E. There are two lifts in each block, one of which serves even-numbered floors, the other one odd-numbered floors. A CCTV camera system exists at the ground floor level for each of the lift cars. The first two floors are however common space where you can wander around under the blocks, the third floor is actually a terrace level between the blocks where the tower blocks rise out of the base of the building and all floors above this are accessible only by the stairways and lifts contained in each block. The separate mall a few metres to the north of the main entrance however protrudes into the 3rd floor of block A and B.

Chungking Mansions is located in one of the busiest districts of Hong Kong; it is very close to the Tsim Sha Tsui Station, and the East Tsim Sha Tsui Station of the MTR. Several airport buses run by it (A21 No14-Bus Stop). Kowloon Park is anchored by a Mosque and this structure and the park itself is a popular refuge from the crowding of the Chungking Mansions and the surrounding area. The Hong Kong Cultural Centre including the Museum of Art is conveniently close by.

While Chungking Mansions is designated for residential use, the building includes a wide variety of commercial establishments. Chungking Mansions contains the largest number of guesthouses in Hong Kong in one building, with 1980 rooms in total. Since it offers some of the cheapest rates in town, it has become a legendary haunt for backpackers and budget travellers.

The mall was closed in 1998. In 2003, the first and second floors were acquired by a developer for approximately HK$200 million, and spent HK$50 million on renovations. Under the new building plan, the 50,000-square-foot (4,600 m 2) second floor was divided into 360 small shops measuring 50 to 500 sq ft (46 m 2) each and resold. The new "Chungking Express" mall was relaunched at the end of 2004. Many shops in the building are import/export businesses dealing in parallel goods that are predominantly sold to Asian and African countries. On the main floors as well as on upper floors in the towers, there are many restaurants that attract visitors from all over the world. For example, some small and family-run Indian and Pakistani restaurants with traditional Indian curry and Nepalese food are very well-known. Due to competition between the very large number of restaurants inside the Mansions that are similar in style, many of them send staff to distribute leaflets on the streets to aggressively promote their restaurants. There are many money changers located in the lower floors of Chungking Mansions who provide exchange services to the high number of people from all over the world living or doing business here. Shops in the arcade sell not only traditional items from all over the world, but also trendy goods. Some of the shops found in the Mansions are different from those that are outside on the streets, selling articles which are imported from Asia and Africa. Computers, DVDs and VCDs, clothing, and some traditional snacks from foreign countries can be found inside Chungking Mansions.

Public safety
The age of the building, the diverse ownership and management structure are causes of the building's reputation for being a fire trap. Unsanitary conditions, security, ancient electrical wiring and blocked staircases all contribute to the hazards. On 21 February 1988, a fire broke out in the building. A Danish tourist who was trapped inside was killed. The fire in this building, as well as a blaze in a similar building, provoked a review of rules and regulations concerning public safety. In 1993, the power and water supplies were suspended for 10 days owing to an explosion in the power supply room. This event made the owners and residents there no longer able to ignore the poor maintenance inside the building. In 1995, Chungking Mansions made local newspaper headlines when Sushila Pandey, a 37-year-old Indian tourist, was killed in the building by her Sri Lankan partner Attanayake Wasala Dangamuwa, 54. It is also known to be a centre of drugs, as well as a refuge for petty criminals, scammers, and illegal immigrants. For example, in a Police swoop in June 1995, about 1,750 people were questioned, and 45 men and seven women from various Asian and African countries were arrested on suspicion of offenses including failing to produce proof of identity, overstaying, using forged travel documents, possessing equipment for forging documents and possessing dangerous drugs. In "Operation Sahara" in 1996, 52 men and seven women from 14 countries were arrested for violating immigration regulations. In order to best deal with the safety concern of the building, the owners' corporation of Chungking Mansions established a HKD$13 million renovation fund in 1999. A total of 208 CCTVs were installed throughout the building in 2004 and placed under the central control of a security company. Chungking Mansions also hires security guards and cleaning workers to patrol the building night and day and to ensure the cleanliness of the building. Fire facilities were also improved with more signs and equipment. From time to time, police officers and immigration officers check the identity of the people inside the building in order to crack down on drug-trafficking, overstaying and other criminal offenses. With all this effort the security and environment in Chungking Mansions have been improving significantly.

Melting pot
CUHK anthropologist Prof. Gordon Mathews estimates that people from at least 120 different nationalities have passed through Chungking Mansions in the past year. With this lively mix of guest workers, mainlanders, local Chinese, tourists and backpackers, the Chungking neighbourhood is one of the most culturally diverse locations in Hong Kong. Chungking Mansions was elected as the "Best Example of Globalization in Action" by TIME Magazine in its annual feature "The Best of Asia", although racial tensions are known to boil over occasionally.

Cultural references
Chungking Mansions served as one of the filming locations for Wong Kar-wai's 1994 movie Chungking Express , and is referenced in the title. Chungking Mansions also featured in National Geographic's Locked Up Abroad , as the location where four young men were sent to rendezvous with gold smugglers. They were contracted to be mules, carrying 60 or more pounds of gold into Nepal.


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