Cathedral of Learning
The Cathedral of Learning, a Pittsburgh landmark listed in the National Register of Historic Places, is the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburgh's main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. Standing at 535 feet (>163 m) , the 42-story Late Gothic Revival Cathedral is the tallest educational building in the Western hemisphere and the second tallest university building (fourth tallest educationally-purposed building) in the world. The Cathedral of Learning was commissioned in 1921 and ground was broken in 1926. The first class was held in the building in 1931 and its exterior finished in October 1934, prior to its formal dedication in 1937. The Cathedral is a steel frame structure overlaid with Indiana limestone and contains more than 2,000 rooms and windows. An impressive scenic building, it is often used by the University in photographs, postcards, and other advertisements.

Use
The basement through floor forty are used for educational purposes, although most floors above 36 house the building's mechanical equipment. These floors include theaters, computer laboratories, classrooms, and departmental offices. The basement contains a black box theater and the ground floor contains computer labs, classrooms, and the Cathedral Café food court. The "lobby" comprising the first through third floors contains a massive gothic "Commons Room" that is used as a general study area and for special events and is ringed by three floors of classrooms including, on the first and third floors, the 27 Nationality Rooms designed by members of the Pittsburgh community in the styles of different nations and ethnic groups. 25 of these serve as functional classrooms while more conventional classrooms are located on the second floor and elsewhere throughout the building. The first floor also serves as the home to the offices of the Chancellor, Executive Vice Chancellor, and other administration offices, as well as the Nationality Rooms Gift Shop. The fourth floor, previously home to the main stacks of the University's Library, is now occupied by the McCarl Center for Nontraditional Student Success. The Darlington Memorial Library on the sixth floor houses a special collection on American history and literature as well as rare documents. Additionally, the University Honors College is located on the 35th and 36th floors. The Cathedral of Learning houses the Department of Philosophy, considered one of the top five in the United States, and the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, consistently ranked at the top of the field. Other departments in the Cathedral include English, Religious Studies, and the School of Social Work which maintains the highest classrooms in the building located on the 23rd floor. Floors 38-40 are closed to the general public, as they contain electrical wiring for the building, as well as the Babcock Room, a large conference room on the 40th floor utilized for meetings, seminars, and special events and which provides a panoramic view of downtown Pittsburgh, the rest of the University, and Carnegie Mellon University. The 40th floor balcony also houses a nesting pair of Peregrine Falcons. A view from the top is available via a webcam. Golden lights, dubbed victory lights, surround the outside of the highest floors and are lit following all Pitt football wins and other notable victories, giving the upper part of the Cathedral an amber glow.

History
In 1921, John Gabbert Bowman traveled to the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to become the tenth chancellor of the University. At that time, the school consisted of a series of buildings constructed along Henry Hornbostel's plan for the campus and included "temporary" wooden structures built during World War I. He then began to envision a "tall building", that would be later termed the Cathedral of Learning, to provide a dramatic symbol of education for the city and alleviate overcrowding by adding much needed space in order to meet present and future needs of the University. His reasoning is summarized in this quote:

In attempting to find a suitable place for this building, Bowman's eyes were drawn to a 14- acre (57,000 m²) plot of land named Frick Acres. In November 1921, with aid from the Mellon family, the University bought the plot, and began plans for a proper university building on the site. One of the foremost Gothic architects of the time, Philadelphian Charles Klauder, was hired to design the tower. The design took two years to finish, with the final plan attempting to fuse the idea of a modern skyscraper with the tradition and ideals of Gothic architecture. The plans received strong resistance from the community and from some University officials, who felt it was too tall for the city. Local legend states that to counteract this resistance Bowman ordered that the construction of the walls would start at the top floor and work its way down, so the project could not be canceled. This has been traced to an account in the November 21, 1943 issue of At Ease, a tabloid related to local military personnel on campus, which stated that "the masonry was started from the top downward." Construction photographs show that this was not the case, and that some stonework was done on the first floor before any other stonework was begun. One engineer with the company working on the Cathedral explained that the exterior walls of the Cathedral are not load-bearing. Because of this, many similar buildings would start construction at the third or fourth floors. Practically, this makes sense, as it allows easy movement of building materials and equipment into and out of the building. Instead, in the Cathedral's case, the issue was one of the stone that would be used in lower stories. In fact, the quarry was not prepared to deliver the stone on schedule, so construction was delayed, and work begun on the higher stories. When construction started on the Cathedral of Learning in 1926, it was the tallest building in Pittsburgh, although the Gulf Tower (1932) was completed and surpassed it by the time the Cathedral of Learning was official dedicated in 1937. Today, it remains the tallest educational building in the Western hemisphere, the second tallest university building in the world behind the 36 story, 240 m (including a 57 m spire) Moscow State University main building completed in 1953, and the fourth tallest educational building in the world behind the Moscow State University and Mode Gakuen Cocoon (204 m) and Spiral Towers (170 m), both completed in 2008 and located in Japan.

Funding
Fundraising for this project came in many forms, including donations from industries, corporations, individuals and foreign governments. To raise public views of the Cathedral, and at the same time finance the construction, Bowman started a fundraising campaign in 1925. An important part of this campaign was a project reaching out to the children of the city entitled "Buy a Brick for Pitt". Each schoolchild sent a dime ( $0.10) and a letter to the University, explaining how they earned the dime for the building. In exchange, the child received a certificate for one brick contained in the Cathedral. A total of 97,000 certificates were issued to children.

Commons Room
The main part of the Cathedral's first floor is the Commons Room, called one of the "great architectural fantasies of the twentieth century", is a fifteenth-century English perpendicular Gothic-style hall that covers half an acre (2,000 m²) and extends upwards four stories, reaching 52 ft (16 m) tall. The room was a gift of Andrew Mellon. It is a piece of true Gothic architecture; no steel supports were used in the construction of its arches. Each arch is a true arch, and they support their own weight. Each base for the arches weighs five tons, and it is said that they are so firmly placed that each could hold a large truck. The large central piers act only as screens for the structural steel that holds up the upper floors of the building. Despite its heavy use, the Commons Room is kept quiet by the use of Guastavino acoustical tiles as the stones between the ribs of vaulting. This perfection was insisted upon by Chancellor Bowman. The architect, Klauder, objected due to the increased costs of this construction method. Bowman responded with the comment: "You cannot build a great University with fraud in it." Joseph Gattoni designed the stonework, much of which depicts western Pennsylvania plant life. The walls are made of Indiana limestone and the floor is green Vermont slate. The wrought iron in the room, including the large gates leading to the elevators, were a gift from George Hubbard Clapp, and were designed by the ironworker Samuel Yellin. Over the gates are two lines from an untitled poem by Robert Bridges: “Here is eternal spring; for you the very stars of heaven are new.” During finals in the winter, fires in the enormous fireplace are lit, to promote a comforting and pleasant atmosphere for the dozens of students typically found studying into the late hours.

Nationality Rooms
The Cathedral is home to 27 Nationality Rooms, twenty-five working classrooms and two display rooms, on the first and third floors. Each nationality room is designed to celebrate a different culture that had an influence on Pittsburgh's growth, depicting an era prior to (or in the singular case of the French Classroom, just after) 1787 which is year the University's founding and the signing of the US Constitution. The Nationality Room programs began in 1926 when Bowman decided that he wanted to involve the community as much as he could in constructing the Cathedral, so he proposed that each nationality that had a significant number of people in Pittsburgh would be allowed to design their nationality's room for the Cathedral. Each group had to form a Room Committee, which would be responsible for all fundraising, designing, and acquisition. The University provided only the room and, upon completion, upkeep for perpetuity. All other materials, labor, and design were provided by the individual committees. These were sometimes aided by foreign governments and the rooms contain many authentic artifacts and materials from the country represented. A typical room on the 1st floor (those built between 1938 and the 1957) took between three and ten years to complete, and cost the equivalent of $300,000 USD in 2006 dollars. More recent rooms have cost in the range of $500,000 and up.

Classrooms

Proposed rooms
There are eight nationality rooms currently being planned to add to the current 27.

Other notable rooms
There are several other notable facilities and rooms within the Cathedral of Learning. In addition, these spaces do not fall under the auspices of the Nationality Rooms program.

Babcock Room
The E.V. Babcock Memorial Room was constructed on the fortieth floor for use as the University trustees' boardroom and was funded by a Babcock family grant of $327,000 and dedicated in November 1958. Its square shape is modified by four alcoves, in one of which is a portrait of Babcock by Malcolm Stevens Parcell. The walls are paneled in Appalachian white oak with burled walnut inlays and touches of rosewood. The room is a plush, carpeted, wood-paneled conference room with an adjoining kitchen and boasts a spectacular view of the surrounding area. During the early 1970s at the height of student activism, a group of protesting students attempted to barricade the room during a trustees meeting. Today, the trustees have out grown the room and generally meet in the Assembly Room of the William Pitt Union. The Babcock room now serves as a seminar and meeting room and is used for special events. A pair of endangered peregrine falcons nests on the balcony outside the room.

Braun Room
Following the opening of the Cathedral of Learning, the offices of the Dean of Women moved to the twelfth floor of the Cathedral in 1938. The interior was unfinished but Dean Amos envisioned a dignified and beautiful space for women to meet. When Dean Amos died in 1941, the new quarters were still unfinished. The Alumnae Association created the Thyrsa W. Amos Fund to plaster the walls and to furnish Room 1217 in her name. Room 1217 was never finished, but after World War II the other rooms on the twelfth floor were completed. Mrs. A. E. Braun donated the furnishings and floral carved mahogany wood paneling which she had purchased in 1941 from the library of the home of Grant McCargo in the East End of Pittsburgh. The Braun Room was dedicated in 1946 and serves, along with its furniture, as an example of a modern reproduction of Louis XV design. Original blue carpeting was replaced in 1955 with a oriental rug, named "The Iron Rug of Persia", that was donated by the daughter and son-in-law of A. E. Braun. Other features of the room include a low bookcase, bordered and topped with classic carving, that was crafted by university carpenters to replace the original fireplace whose inclusion was impractical on the 12th floor, along with two crystal drop chandeliers. Dean Helen Pool Rush and her successor, Dean Savina Skewis, carried on the traditions of Dean Amos until the Dean of Women's Office was closed in 1969, and its functions and quarters were assumed by other departments. The Braun Room is used for meetings and study abroad scholarship selection panels.

Croghan-Schenley Ballroom
The Croghan-Schenley room, situated on the first floor of the Cathedral in room 156, is actually two adjoining Greek Revival rooms, the Ballroom and the Oval Room, connected by a hidden passageway in the Ballroom's fireplace. The rooms were originally part of William Croghan Jr.'s mansion, known as the Picnic House, built in 1830 in the Stanton Heights area of Pittsburgh. The rooms themselves were created in 1835 by the Philadelphia carver Mordecai Van Horn, and they have been regarded as being among the most lavish examples of Greek Revival designs in America. His daughter, Mary Elizabeth, went to boarding school in New York, but in 1842 at the age of fifteen she eloped with 43-year-old Edward Wyndham Harrington Schenley, a captain in the British military. The elopement caused a family schism. Mary would not visit often, and in an effort to convince her to move back to Pittsburgh, the new rooms were commissioned. Following the death of William Croghan in 1850, the mansion was run by caretakers with no permanent residents for some 60 years. William S. Miller, then president of Steelwood Corp., purchased the Croghan mansion following World War II and it was soon leveled for a new housing development, but the Croghan-Schenley rooms were spared. In 1955, the rooms, donated by Miller, were dismantled and rebuilt in the Cathedral, except that the original ceilings had to be lowered about 8 inches to accommodate the available space. In 1982, the rooms were refurbished to their 19th century glory. Highlighting the ballroom are the hand-cut glass chandelier and four wooden, hand-carved Greek columns, surviving examples of western Pennsylvania’s Greek classical revival period popular with those of means in the 1830s. The Croghan-Schenley rooms are the last extant vestiges of the estate of Mary Schenley, who before she died gave much of her holdings and property to the city of Pittsburgh — including Schenley farms, where the Cathedral sits, and Schenley Park. Stories tell of a ghost, speculated to that of Mary Schenley, that is said to roam the Ballroom and Nationality Rooms. The doors to the rooms are locked every night, but furniture is sometimes said to found rearranged by daylight staff. The swinging of the chandelier has been said to indicate her presence.

Frick Auditorium
The Frick Auditorium is a lecture hall in room 324 of the Cathedral of Learning. It features stone mullions, chambranle, and other trim as well as wooden lecture seating and a coffered ceiling. A centerpiece element in the room is a Nicholas Lochoff reproduction of The Resurrection by Piero della Francesca that was purchased for the lecture hall by Helen Clay Frick. Frick would later donate a large collection of Lochoff reproductions to the university which are on display in the Nicholas Lochoff Cloisture in the university's Frick Fine Arts Building.

Humanities Center
The University of Pittsburgh's Humanities Center, part of School of Arts and Sciences, is housed in room 602 of the Cathedral of Learning which was a sixth-floor space formerly occupied by the Darlington Memorial Library. Following digitization and protective storage of the libraries materials, its space was renovated by architect Rob Pfaffmann in 2009 in order to house the center which now includes office space for staff and visiting fellows. The Humanities Center space retains much of the original character and many of the antique furnishings originally bequeathed to the university by the Darlington family, and features moldings and green walls that are duplicated from the 18th mansion Graeme Park, a Pennsylvania colonial-era governor’s residence. The Center for Humanities was finished in time for an open house that was part a conference hosted by the center on November 14–15, 2009. The space served as the home of The Darlington Memorial Library from 1936 until its recent conversion to the Humanities Center. The library was entered through a memorial vestibule and consisted of a central room with eight alcoves and contained, among other notable furnishings, a wrought iron entrance gate by Samuel Yellin. The library had been given to the University of Pittsburgh by the daughters of William McCullough Darlington and Mary Carson Darlington. The initial gift of eleven thousand volumes was made in 1918 by Mary O'Hara Darlington and Edith Darlington Ammon. This was followed by Mary O'Hara Darlington's bequest in 1925 of the remainder of the family's library and a large part of the family estate. The Darlington family's tremendous interest in historical research was the force behind the creation of what was said to be the largest private library west of the Alleghenies. The library collection is particularly rich in material pertaining to the French and Indian War and to the history of Western Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley as both William and Mary Darlington researched and published in these areas. While the main focus of the collection is American history and literature, other highlights of the collection include rare maps and atlases, works on ornithology and natural history, and early travel narratives. The Darlington's son, O'Hara Darlington, also amassed a collections of Victorian literature, sporting books and works of illustrators and caricaturists. The collection has been additionally enriched over the years by the donations of other individuals and organizations, particularly enhancing its content on the history of the Western Pennsylvania region. Prior to the renovation of the original library space, these materials were digitized and placed on-line at The Darlington Digital Library. The original, sometimes fragile, materials of the library were placed in storage for availability to researchers upon request. A virtual tour of the Darlington Memorial Library as it existed previously in the Cathedral of Learning is available for the entrance and the main room.

McCarl Center for Nontraditional Student Success
Located on the fourth floor of the Cathedral of Learning, the 2,500-square-foot (230 m 2) $537,000 McCarl Center was opened in 2002 and occupies space that once housed two levels of the main stacks of the University's library. Made possible by a gift from F. James and Foster J.J. McCarl, it serves as resource center for non-traditional students and hosts seminars and events. The space was designed by Alan J. Cueri and his architectural firm Strada, LLC, and includes wood finishes, double-height spaces with high ceilings and windows, a main corridor conceived as an interior street, and many elements that refer to the Cathedral of Learning's Gothic architecture including decorative painted metal columns with contemporary buttress-style arches. The center includes a resource library, meeting rooms, and a student lounge, and is staffed with academic advisors and has contains a reception area for the College of General Studies. Three unsigned and undated 7 feet (2.1 m) by 3 feet (0.91 m) glass-encased murals that depict Renaissance painting styles and which have long belonged to the University but are of unknown origin hang in a hallway outside the Center.

Mulert Memorial Room
Located in room 204, the wood paneled Mulert Memorial classroom features wood floors and ionic columns. Provided for in the will of the late Mt. Lebanon resident Justus Mulert, the room was dedicated on December 21, 1942 and serves as a memorial to the Mulert's wife, Louise and his son Ferdinand Max, who died in 1912 during his senior year at Washington and Jefferson College.

Studio Theater
The Studio Theatre, a facility utilized by the Department of Theater Arts, is located in the basement of the Cathedral. The Studio Theatre is a black box space that can be configured for almost any set requirements. It is home to student-directed laboratory productions, play readings, Dark Night Cabaret, and plays host to Pittsburgh's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, started in 1989 by graduate theatre students.

University Honors College
The University Honors College, dedicated in 1986, is housed in a 2002-2003 renovated space on the 35th and 36th floors of the Cathedral. The Honors College provides support and enriched opportunities for scholarship among the University's undergraduates and offers a Bachelor of Philosophy (BPhil) degree. The 2002-2003 renovation, by Rothschild Doyno Collaborative of Pittsburgh's Strip District, showcased an existing two-story arched window that is visible at night for miles around. The four-leaf medieval quatrefoil medallion at the top of the Cathedral is a central motif in the design of the Honors College. Stained glass behind the reception desk at the center of the space was designed by Glenn Greene Glass of Regent Square and centers on a design representing the four seasons, done in polished agate. Wrought ironwork was produced by Vic Reynaud of Technique Manufacturing in the spirit of Samuel Yellin who did the Commons Room ironwork.

Recent proposed changes to the Cathedral
In the early 2000s, there was some controversy over whether University funds should be used to illuminate the Cathedral at night, or to clean the building's façade. The cleaning was abandoned because it was too costly. Some Oakland residents spoke out against the cleaning, stating that the years of soot should stay as an homage to Pittsburgh's industrial past. However, the University approved nearly $5 million for cleaning and restoration of stonework on February 28, 2007. The work was completed at the end of 2007, restoring the exterior of the building to its original condition. In the wake of September 11 the Cathedral was deemed "at risk" because terrorists could easily drive a vehicle into the ground floor. To address this concern, the University has since installed bollards that rise out of the sidewalk. Also, the University is currently working toward air-conditioning the first four floors, which contain many classrooms. They plan to complete the effort to centrally cool the entire Cathedral by the end of the decade. Around 200 window air conditioners operate in the building.

References in Popular Culture and Student Life
  • In Gwyn Cready's comedic romance novel, Tumbling Through Time, the hero, Magnus Knightley, is a visiting professor whose office is on the 32nd floor of the Cathedral of Learning. Several scenes in the book take place in the Cathedral.
  • The Cathedral of Learning is described in Michael Chabon's novel The Mysteries of Pittsburgh .
The Cathedral of Learning lit up during the fall of 2008 for the Pittsburgh Festival of Light in celebration of the city of Pittsburgh's 250th anniversary. The mosaic, created by French artist Lucette de Rugy, was inspired by Gutenberg's15th-century printing press
  • In Bethesda Softwork's Fallout 3: The Pitt , the Cathedral of Learning appears as the headquarters of the rulers of a post-apocalyptic Pittsburgh.
  • The Cathedral of Learning was profiled on John Ratzenberger's Made in America TV show on the Travel Channel. See a clip from that episode here
  • The Cathedral is sometimes referred to by Pitt students as the "drunken compass" due to its prominence of visibility throughout the neighborhood of Oakland that is used to guide students returning from parties back to the dorms or apartments . Along with the Early American Nationality Room, and the Croghan-Schenley Ballroom, the Cathedral Café food court on the ground level is purported to be haunted.
  • Portions of the movie Roommates (1995), starring D. B. Sweeney, Peter Falk and Julianne Moore and directed by Peter Yates, were filmed in the Cathedral of Learning, including room 324.
  • Richard Gere's character in The Mothman Prophecies (2002) appears in a scene where he is sitting on a bench on the Cathedral of Learning lawn.
  • The Cathedral of Learning can be seen in backdrop of the graduation scene, filmed on the lawn of Sailors and Soldiers Memorial, for fictional Rosman University in the movie Sorority Row (2009). It can also be seen in the movie Wonder Boys (2000), a film adaptation of Pitt alumni Michael Chabon's novel of the same title, as well as in the original 1951 version of Angels in the Outfield.
  • Artist Harry Scheuch painted the Cathedral of Learning during its construction in the 1930s as a series for the Public Works of Art Project. The works are now part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's exhibit entitled "1934: A New Deal for Artists".
  • Assumption University in Thailand has constructed a 39-story, 522 feet (159 m) building that is modeled and named after the Cathedral of Learning and serves as the centerpiece of their Suvarnabhumi campus.
  • The Cathedral of Learning features in the Chris Kuzneski's 2009 novel, The Prophecy.


References and notes
  • Alberts, Robert C. (1986). Pitt: The Story of the University of Pittsburgh 1787-1987. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0-8229-1150-7.
  • Brown, Mark. The Cathedral of Learning: Concept, Design, Construction, University of Pittsburgh Nationality Rooms Program
  • Bowman, John G. Unofficial Notes
  • Nationality Rooms Guide Training Material
  • University of Pittsburgh Website
  • Starrett, Agnes Lynch (1938). The Darlington Memorial Library. Pittsburgh:
“ The building was to be more than a schoolhouse; it was to be a symbol of the life that Pittsburgh through the years had wanted to live. It was to make visible something of the spirit that was in the hearts of pioneers as, long ago, they sat in their log cabins and thought by candlelight of the great city that would sometime spread out beyond their three rivers and that even they were starting to build. ”
  • African Heritage
  • Armenian
  • Austrian
  • Chinese
  • Czechoslovak
  • Early American (Display)
  • English
  • French
  • German
  • Greek
  • Hungarian
  • Indian
  • Irish
  • Israel Heritage
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Lithuanian
  • Norwegian
  • Polish
  • Romanian
  • Russian
  • Scottish
  • Swedish
  • Syrian-Lebanon (Display)
  • Ukrainian
  • Welsh
  • Yugoslav
  • Danish
  • Finnish
  • Korean
  • Latin American & Caribbean
  • Filipino
  • Swiss
  • Thai
  • Turkish

Media

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Building Activity

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    about 5 years ago via OpenBuildings.com
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    about 5 years ago via Annotator