Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf is a large office and shopping development in east London, located in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Rivalling London's traditional financial centre, The Square Mile, Canary Wharf contains three of the UK's tallest buildings: One Canada Square (commonly known as the Canary Wharf Tower, or even just Canary Wharf); 8 Canada Square and the Citigroup Centre.

History
Canary Wharf is built on the site of the West India Docks on the Isle of Dogs. From 1802, the area was one of the busiest docks in the world. By the 1950s, the port industry began to decline, leading to the docks closing by 1980. Canary Wharf itself takes its name from No. 32 berth of the West Wood Quay of the Import Dock. This was built in 1936 for Fruit Lines Ltd, a subsidiary of Fred Olsen Lines for the Mediterranean and Canary Island fruit trade. At their request, the quay and warehouse were given the name Canary Wharf. The Canary Wharf of today began when Michael von Clemm, former chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston (CSFB), came up with the idea to convert Canary Wharf into back office. Further discussions with G Ware Travelstead led to proposals for a new business district. The project was sold to Olympia & York and construction began in 1988. The first buildings were completed in 1991 which included One Canada Square that became the UK's tallest building and a powerful symbol of the regeneration of Docklands. Upon opening, the London commercial property market had collapsed and Olympia and York Canary Wharf Limited filed for bankruptcy in May 1992.

Local opposition
The idea of a new financial services district was not popular with local residents as the expectation was that the development would provide no local jobs or transport improvements. However, over the course of the development relations with the local community have improved and more than 7,000 local ( Tower Hamlets) residents work at Canary Wharf. In 1997, some residents living on the Isle of Dogs launched a lawsuit against Canary Wharf Ltd for private nuisance because the tower caused interference with television signals. The residents lost the case.

Rescue and recovery
In December 1995 an international consortium, backed by the former owners of Olympia & York and other investors, bought the scheme. The new company was called Canary Wharf Limited, and later became Canary Wharf Group. Recovery in the property market generally, coupled with continuing demand for high floor-plate grade A office accommodation, slowly improved the level of interest in the estate. A critical event in the recovery of Canary Wharf was the much-delayed start of work on the Jubilee Line, which the government wanted ready for the Millennium celebrations. In March 2004 Canary Wharf Group plc was forced to be taken over by a consortium of investors led by Morgan Stanley using a vehicle named Songbird Estates.

Present day
Canary Wharf tenants include major banks, such as Barclays, Credit Suisse, HSBC and Citigroup, law firms such as Clifford Chance, as well as news media and service firms, including Thomson Reuters, and Trinity Mirror. The number of people employed on the estate is over 100,000 of whom around 25% live in the surrounding five boroughs. With the opening of Jubilee Place shopping centre, Canary Wharf has become a shopping destination.

Future developments
Future developments are:

Tallest Canary Wharf buildings

Visions

Cancelled constructions

Timeline of tallest buildings

Transport
Main Article: Heron Quays DLR station One of the first stations to be built in Canary Wharf. The station first opened up in 1987. The station has two platforms in use. The station is in Travelcard Zone 2, and is on the Lewisham branch of the Docklands Light Railway, between Canary Wharf and South Quay. The station was moved 200 metres south (to fit inside the new buildings) and a longer platform was built at this new site to accommodate three-unit trains planned as part of the DLR Capacity Enhancement; the station re-opened on 18 December 2002. Main Article: South Quay DLR station The original South Quay station opened in 1987, and was a standard DLR phase 1 elevated station, subsequently extended to permit the use of 2 car trains. In 1996, near the station, the Docklands bombing killed 2 people and injured over 30 & than rebuilt the station. Main Article: Canary Wharf DLR station Canary Wharf station had been part of the original DLR plans, but when the system opened in August 1987 the station was not ready. It was originally planned that the station would be similar to the original station at Heron Quays, with two small platforms either side of the tracks.The station is located on the DLR between Heron Quays station and the West India Quay station, in Travelcard Zone 2, which are in fact the three closest train stations on the same line in the world. Main Article: Canary Wharf tube station The Canary Wharf tube station is a two platform station which opened in 1999 and runs on the Jubilee line.Canary Wharf station has increasingly become one of the busiest stations on the network, serving the ever-expanding Canary Wharf business district. The station was used as a location for some scenes of Danny Boyle's 2002 film 28 Days Later and its sequel 28 weeks later which was mostly based in Canary Wharf. Main Article: Canary Wharf railway station Canary Wharf railway station began Construction in May 2009 and will be completed in the year 2017. The station will have two platforms and will be in the Travelcard Zone 2. Main Article: London City Airport London City Airport is linked to London's new financial district at Canary Wharf and to the traditional financial district of the City of London via the Docklands Light Railway, and with an interchange to the London Underground. London City Airport DLR station is situated immediately adjacent to the terminal building, with enclosed access to and from the elevated platforms. Bus Routes 135 This bus route starts at Old Street Station & ends at Crossharbour. The Operator for this bus is Arriva London. 277 This bus route starts at Highbury & Islington and ends at Leamouth, the via stops are Dalston, Hackney Central, Mile End & Canary Wharf. The frequency of this bus is about every 7–30 minutes. N550 This is a night bus route that does 11 miles & the frequency of this bus is about every 30 minutes. This bus route starts at Canning Town & ends at Trafalgar Square. Local Buses: These are local buses that goes around the London Docklands area. D3 D6 D7 D8

Significance and impact
The most immediate impact of Canary Wharf has been to substantially increase land values in the surrounding area. This means that the Isle of Dogs, which had previously been seen as suited for low-density light industrial development, has been up-rated. Projects such as South Quay Plaza and West India Quay are a direct consequence of this. At the peak of property prices in 2007, the HSBC building sold for a record £1.1 billion. At the metropolitan level, Canary Wharf was, and remains, a direct challenge to the primacy of the City of London as the UK's principal centre for the finance industry. Relations between Canary Wharf and the City of London Corporation have frequently been strained, with the City accusing Canary Wharf of poaching tenants, and Canary Wharf accusing the City of not catering to occupier needs. Canary Wharf's national significance comes from what it replaces: the former docks were, as recently as 1961, the busiest in the world. They served huge industrial areas of east London and beyond. Both the docks and much of that industrial capacity are gone, with employment shifting to the service industry accommodated in office buildings. In this respect, Canary Wharf could be cited as the strongest single symbol of the changed economic geography of the United Kingdom. The Radiohead song "Fake Plastic Trees" is about Canary Wharf .

References and notes
^ "United Kingdom list of tallest buildings". SkyscraperPage.com . http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?countryID=133 . Retrieved 2009-01-12. ^ West India Docks (1803-1980) (Port Cities) accessed 22 July 2008 ^ The West India Docks: The buildings: warehouses, Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 284-300. Retrieved 22 July 2008 ^ "The Development of Transport in London Docklands - Part I: The Chronological Story". LDDC history. 1987-07-17 . http://www.lddc-history.org.uk/transport/tranmon2.html#Era . Retrieved 2009-01-12. ^ The court found against the appellants (Hunter and others) as private nuisance legislation generally concerns 'emanations' from land, not interference with such emanations. "Hunter and Others v. Canary Wharf Ltd./Hunter and Others v. London Docklands Corporation" House of Lords Session 1996-97. Retrieved on 2009-03-23. ^ Saunders, Craig (2007-06-19). "Canary Wharf singing a red-hot tune". The Globe and Mail . http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/LAC.20070619.PRLONDON19/TPStory/Business . Retrieved 2009-01-12. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsMmJjWe0hM

Name Height Floors year Status Notes metres feet Columbus Tower 237 778 63 2012 Approved Originally refused in 2008 by the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, but London's Mayor Boris Johnson overruled the decision and approved the building. Due to become Canary Wharf's tallest building upon completion. Riverside South, Tower 1 236 774 45 2012 Under Construction Due to become Canary Wharf's second tallest building upon completion. North Quay, Tower 1 221 727 44 2017 Approved Heron Quays West 214 702 40 2017 Approved Wood Wharf W07B 206 676 51 2019 Approved North Quay, Tower 3 209 667 38 2017 Approved Wood Wharf W06 187 618 45 2019 Approved Riverside South, Tower 2 189 610 38 2012 Under Construction Wood Wharf W02 182 598 40+ 2019 Approved Wood Wharf W07A 128 418 30+ 2019 Approved North Quay, Tower 2 120 393 18 2017 Approved Rank Image Name Height Floors year Note Metres feet 1 One Canada Square 235 771 50 1991 This is the 14th-tallest building in Europe, and currently the tallest building in the United Kingdom. Tallest building in the United Kingdom since 1991. Tallest structure completed in London in the 1990s. 2= 8 Canada Square 200 655 42 2002 The 22nd-tallest building in Europe, second-tallest building in the United Kingdom. Also known as the HSBC HQ. 2= 25 Canada Square 200 655 42 2001 The 22nd-tallest building in Europe, second-tallest building in the United Kingdom. Also known as the Citigroup Centre, London 3 One Churchill Place 156 513 32 2004 Seventh-tallest building in the United Kingdom. The building was originally planned to be 50 stories in height, but was scaled down to 31 after the 9/11 terrorist attacks and this would have been the tallest building in Canary Wharf. 4= 40 Bank Street 153 502 33 2003 Eighth-tallest building in the United Kingdom. 4= 25 Bank Street 153 502 33 2003 Eighth-tallest building in the United Kingdom. 5 10 Upper Bank Street 151 495 32 2003 Tenth-tallest building in the United Kingdom. 6 Pan Peninsula 147 484 48 2008 Sixth-tallest building in Canary Wharf. 7 33 Canada Square 105 344 18 1999 8 1 Cabot Square 89 292 21 1991 1 Cabot Square also known as Credit Suisse. 9 5 Canada Square 88 288 16 2003 The principal tenant at 5 Canada Square is the European arm and HQ of Banc of America Securities, and features one of Europe's largest trading floors.Credit Suisse has one half of the building but only occupies floors 11-15. 10 25 Cabot Square 81 265 17 1991 The architect on the project was Skidmore Owings & Merrill. 11 25 North Colonnade 80 262 17 1991 12 20 Bank Street 68 223 14 2003 20 Bank Street (Heron Quays 1 (HQ1) or the Morgan Stanley Building). The building was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM). 13 50 Bank Street 63 206 11 2002 Name Height Floors Metres Feet Credit Suisse First Boston Building 250 820 50 Name Height Metres Floors Note Canary Riverside Phase 2 gorda 75 22 Canary Riverside Phase 3 75 22 15 Canada Square 71 12 25 Churchill Place 124 25 If this wasn't Cancelled, the Construction would have been finished in 2010 Harper Mackay Building 101 27 Name Image Height Floors Years as tallest 1 Cabot Square 89 21 earl 1991 - late 1991 One Canada Square 235 50 late 1991 -

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