Broughty Castle
Broughty Castle is a historic castle in Broughty Ferry, Dundee, Scotland. It was completed around 1495, although the site may have been first fortified in 1454 when the fourth Earl of Angus received permission to build on the site. The main tower house forming the centre of the castle with four floors was built by Andrew, 2nd Lord Gray who was granted the castle in 1490. It was surrendered by purchase to the English in September 1547 by Lord Gray following the Battle of Pinkie. In the same year the English garrison at the castle further fortified it by building a ditch across the landward side of the castle's promontory. Edward Clinton began the refortification in September 1547, with the advice of an Italian engineeer, Master John, and left 100 men guarded by three ships. The garrison was first led by Sir Andrew Dudley, Somerset's brother, who hoped to distribute Tyndale's Bible in Dundee. Dudley was succeeded by John Luttrell who had been the commander at Inchcolm. It wasn't for another three years, in February 1550 that the French and Scots managed to recapture it. Mary of Guise watched the successful assault from a vantage point across the Tay. The castle was attacked again, in 1651, by General Monck and his Parliamentary army during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. On this occasion the Royalist defenders fled without a fight. Following 1666, when the Gray family sold the castle, it gradually became more ruinous. In 1846 the castle was bought by the Edinburgh and Northern Railway Company in order to build an adjacent harbour for their railway ferry. In 1855 the castle was acquired by the War Office with the intention of using it to defend the harbour from the Russians. In 1860 renewed fears of a French invasion led the War Office to rebuild and fortify the site. The site was rebuilt according to the designs of Robert Rowand Anderson. The walls of the main courtyard were rebuilt and new wing and courtyard were added to the tower. A caponier was added along the south-east side of the courtyard. Emplacements for nine large guns were also constructed. A small enclosure on the west side of the courtyard was also built. From 1886 to 1887 a range was built to house submarine miners to the east of the castle. In an emergency these would lay mines in the Tay Estuary to damage enemy shipping. In 1889 to 1891 a magazine was built within the western enclosure which also led to a major remodeling of the gun emplacements. The castle remained in military use until 1932, and again between 1939 and 1949. The last defence-related alteration was made in the second world war when a defence post was built within the top of the main tower. In 1969 the castle opened as a museum operated by Dundee city council.