Arignar Anna Zoological Park

Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Tamil: அறிஞர் அண்ணா உயிரியல் பூங்கா), also known as the Vandalur Zoo, is a zoological garden located in Vandalur, a suburb in the southwestern part of Chennai, India, about 31 kilometres (19 mi) from the city centre and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Chennai Airport on GST Road. The zoo is contiguous with the Guindy National Park. Founded in 1855, the park was the first public zoo in India. It is recognized by the Central Zoo Authority of India. Spread over an area of 602 hectares (1,490 acres), including a 92.45-hectare (228.4-acre) rescue and rehabilitation center, the park is the largest zoological garden in India and is home to seven white tigers. It houses more than 170 species of animals in about 81 enclosures. There are about 47 species of mammals, 63 species of birds, 31 species of reptiles, 5 species of amphibians, 25 species of fishes, and 10 species of insects in the park. The park, with an objective to be a repository of the state's fauna, is credited with being the state's second wildlife sanctuary after Mudumalai.

History

In 1854, Dr. Edward Balfour, then director of the Government Central Museum at Madras, persuaded the Nawab of the Carnatic to donate his entire animal collection to the museum. This attracted large crowds and became the nucleus of the Madras Zoo, which was founded in 1855. Dr. Belford started the zoo on the museum premises, and it was later transferred to the Madras Corporation and shifted to 'People’s Park' near Central station at Park Town in 1861 as it was growing. The municipal zoological garden occupied one end of the 116-acre (47 ha) park and was open free to the public.

By 1975, the zoo could no longer expand, and it had to be moved out of the city because of space constraints and increased noise pollution due to the city's high-density traffic. Hence a plan was prepared in 1976 to maintain these animals in good simulated condition. In 1979, the Tamil Nadu Forest Department set aside 1,265 acres (512 ha) in the Vandalur Reserve Forest on the outskirts of the city to build the current zoo, which is the largest zoological garden in India and South Asia and one of the largest in the world. Work started in 1979 at an initial cost of 75 million, and the zoo in its new premises was officially opened to public on 24 July 1985 by the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu M.G. Ramachandran, when most of the works were completed. In 2001, 92.45 hectares (228.4 acres) of land next to the park was acquired to build a rescue and rehabilitation center for confiscated and abandoned wild animals, increasing the park size to 602 hectares (1,490 acres).

The zoo was the first to hold an All-India Zoo Superintendents Conference in 1955, as part of the centenary celebrations. The zoo is named after Tamil politician Arignar Anna. During April 2010-March 2011, the zoo attracted nearly 1,810,846 visitors against 11,87,904 visitors in 2006-2007. In November 2010, the total revenue was 46.9 million against 40.2 million during October 2009. There has been an increase of more than 200,000 visitors in 2010 compared to 2009 and the park had recorded a 21 percent increase in the number of visitors. The number of visitors raises to the peak on the Kaanum Pongal day, a day in the festival season of mid-January, when the visitor count goes up to 35,000 in a single day. An all-time record of 57,000 visitors a day was registered on the Kannum Pongal day of 2009, resulting in a revenue of 1.015 million.

Location

The park is located at Vandalur in the southwestern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area, about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from Tambaram and about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Chennai Airport. The entrance to the zoo lies in the eastern side of the Chennai-Tiruchi Highway (National Highway 45), also known as the Grand Southern Trunk (GST) Road. Public buses from the park include A18 (to Broadway), B18 (to Korukkupettai), PP66 (to Poonamallee), PP70 (to Avadi), 114 (to Red Hills), 170A (to Madhavaram) and 170T (to Kaviarasu Kannadasan Nagar). Other buses which go to Guduvanchery, Chengalpet, Maraimalai Nagar, Mahendira City, Thiruporrur and Mamallapuram also stop at the zoo. There are 92 bus services to Vandalur every day of the week, and in addition to this, there are 90 bus routes that go via Vandalur to places like Guduvanchery and Chengelpet. The Chennai suburban railway network has a stop named "Vandalur" about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the main entrance of the park.

Objectives and organisational structure

The main objectives of the park are ex-situ propagation of critically endangered species to prevent their extinction, wildlife education and interpretation aimed at a wider public appreciation of wildlife, and wildlife research to promote wildlife conservation and management.

Overall management of the zoo is vested in the Director, Arignar Anna Zoological Park. The director is also the Member Secretary of The Zoo Authority of Tamil Nadu, which started functioning from 1 April 2005, and comprises the following members:

  • The Secretary to Government, Environment and Forest Department (Chairman)
  • The Secretary to Government, Finance Department (Member)
  • The Secretary to Government, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Department (Member)
  • The Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Tamil Nadu (Member)
  • Vice-Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (Member)
  • Director, Department of Environment (Member)
  • Commissioner, Tourism Department (Member)
  • Chief Wildlife Warden, Tamil Nadu (Member)

There are currently about 170 staff, including about 50 animal keepers and 20 temporary staff, against a sanctioned strength of 300, including forest rangers, wildlife keepers, biologists and veterinary doctors.

The park's environment

The zoo's ecosystem consists of dry deciduous and dry evergreen scrub forest vegetation of the Eastern Ghats receiving an average annual rainfall of 1,400 millimetres (55 in). The terrain is a gentle undulating one with an average elevation of 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. The park was designed in such a way as to keep the natural vegetation of the area intact except where the enclosures, roads and structures had to be constructed. Originally a scrub forest invaded by weeds, the park's vegetation was gradually enriched by planting dry evergreen species ever since the construction of the park. The entire campus has been fortified by means of a compound wall, preventing any biotic interference in the park and allowing the natural growth of vegetation, which eventually endowed the park an aesthetic look of a natural forest. The park is built based on the 'open zoo' concept. The exhibits were originally based on taxonomic and geographical distribution of the species but has now been replaced by ecological niches and habitats. The order of priority is local species, followed by regional, national and international species. The use of moats has made it possible to have a panorama of wildlife such that predators and prey can be housed in one extended enclosure. There are over 75 moated enclosures in the park.

Most of the exhibits in the zoo lie along the arterial circular road covering a distance of about 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi). Smaller mammals and other exhibits are located along the three inner roads of the park. The park area is dotted with large open island-type enclosures and chain-link fence, with camouflaged wet and dry moats, hidden walls and simulated natural environment for the inmates of the park.

The remaining area makes up the free-range zone—an open area which makes up the bulk of the park and where animals such as deer and jackals are left to roam free. There are more than 500 deer of different varieties and an equal number of jackals in the free-range zone. Apart from this, there are four enclosures for deer—each housing about 30 animals. The two animals are found in equal numbers and are known for their fast-breeding ability, especially in their natural environment. The deer–jackal ratio is maintained by the 'natural method of selection'—allowing the stronger ones to prey on the weaker ones—a natural way of balancing the ecological system.

Otteri lake situated within the park premises is the roosting ground for a wide array of aquatic migratory birds like the open-bill stork, painted stork, white ibis, grey heron, night heron, cormorants, darters, egrets, dabchicks, pelicans, great pelicans, glossy ibis and moorhen and is a bird watchers' paradise. The 7-hectare (17-acre) lake, surrounded by a variety of trees, attracts a large number of migratory birds in October, November and December. Both terrestrial and aquatic birds of about 70 species congregate here during the season. On an average, every year, around 10,000 migratory birds visit the lake. About 230 saplings of Barringtonia, a species native to mangrove habitats, have been planted inside the lake to attract more birds.

Exhibits

The park has 81 enclosures and more than 170 species of mammals, birds and reptiles such as the barking deer, blackbuck, sambar, sangai, nilgai, wolf, tiger, jaguar, panther, hog deer, jackal, hyena, lion, giraffe, camel, otter, llama, elephant, a number of monkey species like Nilgiri langur, lion-tailed macaque, baboon, Hanuman langur and leaf-capped langur. There are about 46 endangered animals of the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats and the Indian subcontinent such as the Nilgiri macaques, as well as other rare species including monitor lizard, chimpanzees, European brown bear, Muscovy duck, giraffe, Bengal tiger, white tiger, lemur, macaque, vulture, and star tortoises. The park is also home to exotic species such as emu and cassowary, which are flightless birds from Australia. The park contains about 138 plant species, including cashew and eucalyptus.

The zoo houses 2,553 species of flora and fauna across 1,265 acres (512 ha). The Central Zoo Authority of India has identified the park as coordinating zoo for the breeding programmes for endangered species as per the National Zoo Policy adopted by the Government of India in 1988, which states that the main objective of zoos will be to complement and strengthen national efforts in the conservation of the country's rich biodiversity. The species which have no chance of survival in the wild would be bred under ex-situ conditions. The park has a high rate of success in captive breeding of lion-tailed macaques. In 2010, the zoo had 22 lion-tailed macaques, from a breeding pair that were brought to the zoo in 1983. The park is also successful in breeding other rare species in captivity, including ostrich,Asian palm civet,Indian gaur,wild dog,Asiatic lion,Nilgiri langur,sangai, hippo,Malabar giant squirrel, white tiger, Asiatic wolf, panther and bison. The zoo is among four in the country to have an ostrich. The park also undertakes cross-breeding as part of its conservation efforts.

Animals at the park as of 30 June 2005 include:

As part of the park's development plan, safari parks for lion, gaur and deer have been created on a hilly terrain covering an area of 70 hectares (170 acres), and visitors can see the animals in their natural habitats. The lion park has been developed in an area of 30 hectares (74 acres) at a cost of about 2.358 million and is operational since October 1990 providing the visitors a 15-min drive into the safari. The safari contains 15 animals and these are involved in captive breeding.

The deer park was opened in 2008. It covers more than 30 hectares (74 acres) and is home to more than 100 animals including sambar and spotted deer.

Elephant safari was introduced in the zoo in the summer of 2008. Visitors can travel on elephants for a tour around the zoo. The park is the only place after Mudumalai in the Nilgiris that organises elephant safari rides in the state. There are 3 elephants in the park and 2 more have been brought from Mudumalai to start the safari.

The park authorities plan to create a new Indian Gaur safari in 2011 in part of the current lion safari area. The lion safari has two geographical regions—hilly and plains. At present, the lions move around in the plains region (about 12 hectares (30 acres) of the 30-hectare (74-acre) total area) and are not allowed into the hilly region. The proposed gaur safari would be created on the 18 hectares (44 acres) of hilly terrain. A night safari in the park is also being promoted. The night safari will have two components, viz., an animal exhibit area and an entertainment area. The night safari is being established for providing opportunity to observe the natural wildlife behaviour and activities in the night hours. During 2010-11, the Night Safari scheme will be implemented at a cost of 40.2 million.

The butterfly house, constructed at a cost of 6 million, has more than 25 host plants and landscaped habitats, such as bushes, lianas, streams, waterfall and rock-gardens, that attract many species of butterflies such as the common mormon, crimson rose, mottled emigrant, blue tiger, evening brown and lime butterfly. The park covers an area of 5 acres.The butterfly garden with an insect museum at the entrance is set up by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. The insect museum has been planned with an exhibit area comprising insect exhibits representing the most common Indian species of all orders of insects both in the form of preserved specimens and photographs.

Two aviaries at the zoo were designed to imitate specific bird sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu. The Point Calimere Aviary represents a sanctuary on a bay on the Coromandel Coast of the District of Nagapattinam, where migratory birds including flamingos, seagulls, teals, storks and herons can be seen between October and February each year. These species can be seen year-round in this aviary, where flamingos can feed in the shallows while seagulls swim in deeper water. The aviary has a small island (about 30 square metres (320 sq ft)) with bushy vegetation, and water covering about 110 square metres (1,200 sq ft). The Vedanthangal Sanctuary Aviary represents a sanctuary located in the district of Kanchipuram. It is planted with Acacia nilotica, bamboo and other tree species which offer convenient places for birds to rest. Birds such as white ibis, painted stork, night heron and grey heron are found here, and baskets have been provided to facilitate breeding.

The Terrestrial Aviary was opened in 1992, but was closed within a few years due to maintenance issues. It was renovated and reopened in 2010 as the Bio Centre. This 1.5-acre (0.61 ha) walk-through aviary cost about 2 million, and is located on a slope behind the tiger house (12°52′56″N 80°05′29″E / 12.8823035°N 80.0913191°E / 12.8823035; 80.0913191). The aviary is home to about 150 birds of 13 different species including kingfisher, rose-ringed parakeet, red-whiskered bulbul, white-browed bulbul, Alexandrine parakeet, common myna, koel, crow, pheasants, peacocks, partridges, quails and blue rock pigeon, as well as reptiles, amphibians and butterflies. The birds are grouped into three categories—lower, middle and upper nesting varieties. The height of the aviary ranges from 5 metres (16 ft) at the top of the slope to 12 metres (39 ft) at the bottom, with the chain link "roof" sloping downward from west to east. The aviary is surrounded by a 1-metre (3 ft 3 in) wall, and the four sides above this are covered with steel and blue-coloured nylon net in order to provide an open-sky effect. The ground is floored by tiled footpath lawned with Korean grass to maintain the humidity level. The moist deciduous habitat supports 22 tree and shrub species.

The reptile house or the serpentarium is built in a twining snake-like model with entrance and exit points in the snake's mouth and tail, respectively. The serpentarium has 24 enclosures exhibiting 4 species of poisonous and 10 species of non-poisonous snakes. The house was opened to public in the year 1989. The park has initiated controlled breeding programme for Indian rock python. Each vivarium has been renovated by changing substratum and providing perch and hide outs. The top of the opening in RCC roof is closed with transparent acrylic sheet to avoid rain and the walled enclosure enables the snake to exhibit all natural behaviours. The king cobra is one of the star attractions of this park. This species is scientifically kept and maintained in constant temperature by providing air conditioning and hot spot.

The park stands first in the country for establishing an amphibian captive facility and it is the only zoo in the country to have amphibians on display. Locally available species such as Indian tree frog (Polypedates maculatus), common Indian toad (Bufo melanasticus), Indian bull frog (Rana tigirina), Indian cricket frog (Limnonectus limnocharis) and Indian pond frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) are exhibited in the Amphibian Centre. A water recycling system has been introduced to keep the house clean and plants have been planted inside each tank to add green fresh look.

The park houses many species of crocodiles such as the gharial, the marsh crocodile, the salt water crocodile and the American spectacled caiman. Except the Cuban crocodile, the park has rest of the seven major varieties such as Indo-Pacific or the salt water crocodile, swamp crocodile, Nile crocodile of Africa, Orinoco crocodile, Morelet's crocodile and American crocodile. In the eight enclaves for crocodiles, there are 115 adult specimens and more than 200 young ones belonging to the six varieties. This includes two pairs of fresh water adult crocodiles. Many of the species also breed here.

The primate house includes some unique endangered primate species like the lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur, capped langur and chimpanzee. The park is also the National Stud Book Keeper for the endangered lion-tailed macaque, nominated by the Central Zoo Authority of India.

The nocturnal animals section houses six species. The biological rhythm and cycle of the animals has been modified so that they are active during the day time and sleep during the night time.

The newly constructed Small Mammals House has animals such as the grizzled giant squirrel and the Malayan giant squirrel. The zoo also houses many small carnivores and animals of the Western Ghats.

The shark-modelled aquarium, with its entrance and exit points in the form of gills of the shark, is set amidst a pond and houses 31 species of fresh-water fishes. The pond surrounding the aquarium too has different varieties of fishes.

Other sections in the zoo include the prey–predator concept enclosures (tiger–sambar), Prehistoric Animal Park with life-size models of prehistoric animals and insectarium complex, apart from an interpretation center, zoo school and children's park. The zoo school has formulated conservation, education and awareness programmes for academics and general public that includes teacher training, zoo out reach and volunteers programmes, such as Zoo Club Volunteer Programme and Animal Keepers Training Programme. The zoo also has a library with a collection of wildlife-related books.

Other facilities

The park has tree-lined paved paths for long treks inside the zoo, and visitors can easily walk 15–20 kilometres (9.3–12.4 mi) during a visit. Battery-operated vehicles with a range of up to 80 kilometres (50 mi) are available for rent. There are about 9 such vehicles in addition to the 4 battery-operated vans used for the lion safari and 4 road rails used for going around the zoo, and plans to purchase more. Each vehicle carries 15 to 20 people, and each trip takes about an hour. A trial program of 20 rental bicycles for visitors, including 5 for children, was launched in 2008. The bicycles are an eco-friendly option that will hopefully reduce demand for the battery-operated cars. An e-bike facility was also inaugurated on 20 February 2010.

There is a snack bar run by the Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), an ice cream parlor and a drinks counter—all near the entrance. The park also maintains 16 toilets and nearly two dozen taps within the premises for the visitors. However, there are not many refreshment counters within the zoo. The zoo is open to public from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm except Tuesdays. All the animals, especially the big cats, are back in their cages after 5.00 pm and most tourists prefer to visit them before going on to the other exhibits.

The zoo has a guest house located on Kelambakkam Road.

The zoo officials has roped in the services of private security personnel. From December 1, 2010, four persons from a private security service were deployed along with forest rangers for night patrolling.

Programmes and activities

The park has a zoo club, comprising college students, which was formed in 1997. The club helps keep the premises clean and the members also conduct educational programmes and carry out patrols.

Following the death of a llama at the park after swallowing a plastic bag, plastic materials have been banned inside the park premises. The members of the zoo club are 98 percent successful in controlling the entry of plastic materials inside the park. The zoo also plans to introduce "Friends of the Zoo" programme in line with the National Zoo Policy, prepared by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1998.

The park launched a zoo news letter in 2000 to serve as a source of current news and developments in the park. Efforts are being made to publish the news letter on regular intervals.

From 22nd to 24th of September 2000, the park conducted a workshop for keeping and breeding amphibians in captivity for the first time in India.

The park, along with the Chennai Snake Park, Madras Crocodile Bank and the Mysore Zoo, is slated to become a nodal point for captive breeding of endangered pythons in the country, especially the Indian rock python (Python molurus) and reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

In 2007, the zoo started to construct a separate breeding enclosure for the lion-tailed macaque, proposing to bring under Foreign Animal Exchange Programme. The enclosure was built at the cost of 1.6 million at a silent, remote place in the park to provide a natural habitat for the animals and to ensure breeding. The total enclosure measures about 3,000 sq. m, including three rooms with about 250 sq. ft. Three pairs of macaque could be kept in these rooms. The habitat is planted with fruit-bearing trees, including gooseberry and mangoes.

In July 2008, the world's first non-invasive birth control surgery on mugger crocodiles was performed in the park by the surgeons of the Madras Veterinary College to control breeding and inbreeding.

In September 2008, the park initiated Adopt An Animal, an animal adoptation programme, which has seen a few takers so far in the state, with less than 20 sponsors, mostly individuals and companies, coming forward. The first adoptation began with adopting a spotted deer, a peacock, two lovebirds and a parrot in June 2009. The park has received money to a tune of 2.3 million from individuals and organisations for adopting animals between August 2010 and March 2011.

The park has developed an informative and illustrative guide in collaboration with the Centre for Environment Education (CEE), Ahmadabad, providing zoo ethics and comprehensive information including road map to the animal enclosures and visitor amenities.

Animal care

Owing to its vastness and round-the-clock availability of animal medical care facilities, most of the rescued animals in the state, especially elephants, are brought to the park. Environment enrichment, psychological well-being and animal husbandry and veterinary care were the three important captive management practices that contributed to the longevity of animals. There has been a considerable reduction in the mortality rate of animals in captivity at the park. Between April 2010 and March 2011, only 22 animals were reported dead, of which 9 died due to old age and the remaining owing to other health-related problems and infighting. Incidents of infighting, although rare, have been reported in the park.

With the guidance provided by the Central Zoo Authority of India, kraals—fencing of a portion of the moated enclosure—were created in the herbivore enclosures in 2003 in order to isolate and treat sick or wounded animal. Herbivores with physical problems are isolated in the facility to be checked by the vets. One of the corners of the enclosure is chosen mainly to keep visitors away from the treated animals. Kraals have been created in the enclosures of spotted deer, blackbuck, sambar, nilghai, barking deer, hog deer, brow-antlered deer, moufflon and bison. To make the animals get accustomed to the kraal, the feed is kept inside the premises. Apart from treating animals, the kraal also acts as a place for isolating animals in rut. For example, during mating season, males often fight with each other leading to problems for the veterinarians. To overcome this, the males are kept in kraals in isolation from other males. Kraals also help research scholars in observing and recording the movement and other activities of the animal, thus helping with studying their behavioural pattern.

With the banning of training and exhibition of five species of animals, namely, lion, tiger, panther, bear and monkey enforced by the Government of India in 1998, a 92.45-hectare (228.4-acre) rescue and rehabilitation centre for animals was established next to the zoo with the assistance of the Central Zoo Authority in 2001. The area was acquired from the research wing of the Tamilnadu Forest Department in continuity with the fodder bank of the zoo with an assistance of 14.598 million. The centre provides temporary and long-term care for confiscated and abandoned endangered animals, such as lions and tigers rescued from circuses, and is home to about 32 lions and 7 tigers. It has a capacity to house 40 lions and 20 tigers. It also has a reptile house and an aviary. The park is one of the five zoos in the country identified and funded by the Central Zoo Authority for the rehabilitation of circus animals. The rehabilitation centre is not open to the visitors.

The zoo veterinary hospital is responsible for disease prevention and health care management of the park's captive population. The hospital has a well-equipped operation theatre, in-patient ward, radiology unit, laboratory, clinical room, pathology room, quarantine facilities and convalescent yard fully functional to cater the needs of complete animal health care. It also includes a modern diagnostic laboratory with facility for periodic coprological examination, identification of causative organism, antiobiotic, sensitivity, pregnancy diagnosis, hematology, serology and urinalysis.

Conservation

The zoo requires about 200,000 litres (53,000 USgal) of water per day for drinking, bathing animals, cleaning enclosures, and keeping the areas around them cool, much of which comes from the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD). The remainder comes from 13 open wells, 5 borewells and the Otteri lake at the zoo. The zoo plans to set up rainwater harvesting systems, including small bunds and check dams, to store water during the monsoon that would otherwise be lost. Three troughs and a checkdam have already been constructed in the safari to help store the natural runoff from the nearby hillock.

To save power and and increase safety, 14 enclosures at the park now have solar powered lights at a cost of 200,000. The lion safari (old and new) and enclosures for white tigers, panthers, bears, hyenas, chimpanzee, a pair of lions, jackal, wild dog, owl, sloth bear, and brown bear are now lit by solar power for about three hours each evening. Each system includes a solar panel and a 250kv battery connected to a 33-volt bulb, and can supply power for up to 8 hours.

The soaring temperature in Chennai, especially during summer, demands extra care for residents of the zoo and the park maintains an exclusive summer management schedule. All animal enclosures have thatched roofs and fresh river sand spread on the floor to make them cooler for the animals. Water is sprinkled on the sand to provide extra cooling. Caves that are exposed directly to the sun are put under a shower twice a day. The enclosure for the king cobra has an air conditioner because the species cannot stand the summer heat. For birds, the topmost part of the cage is covered with jute bags and water is sprinkled three times a day. Based on the temperature, cucumber, buttermilk, apple and banana are also served to herbivores.

Incidents

In January 2002, when a panther from the Vandalur reserve forest entered into the zoo premises, the zoo was closed over 45 days to facilitate search for the animal. After several attempts, the animal was finally trapped, and it was was named after the zoo keeper, Arumugam, who first noticed the feline in the trap cage and alerted his superiors.

On 12 November 2007, a 13-ft long reticulated python was found in a ventilator inside the pygmy hippopotamus enclosure in the zoo. One of the zoo officials said the rescued python could have escaped from its enclosure, when it was young, 4 to 5 years ago. When the workers were trying to take the reptile, it bit one of the animal keepers, but since it was a non-poisonous one, the animal keeper was provided treatment for the injury. The reptile was feeding on small mammals, roaming freely inside the zoo, which helped it survive without any problem.

On the night of 10 July 2010, three sand boas (Eryx johnii), out of five in the enclosure, were reported stolen from the zoo.

The future

In February 2011, the zoo began construction of a large new tiger cage at a cost of about 200,000 and the new cage will be linked to the existing one. The existing enclosure measures 26.64 feet in height, length and width. The new cage will be 13 metres (43 ft) tall at its highest point and 11 metres (36 ft) wide, enough for four adult tigers at a time. It will have separate entries for the animal keeper and the animals. Illuminated by solar-powered lights, it will have a sloping roof and good ventilation. There are 15 tigers in the zoo, 7 of which are white tigers.

Media

2 photos

Building Activity

  • OpenBuildings
    OpenBuildings updated 9 media, updated a digital reference, uploaded a media file and added a digital reference
    kost zoo 249
    about 6 years ago via OpenBuildings.com
  • OpenBuildings
    OpenBuildings updated a digital reference
    about 6 years ago via Annotator
  • Radil Radenkov
    Radil Radenkov updated
    about 6 years ago via OpenBuildings.com